Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Scientia Agropecuaria]]> vol. 14 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Possible economic losses on the oranges production chain of Peru due to introduction of Huanglongbing (HLB): Simulation of prospective scenarios to 2045]]> Abstract Huanglongbing (HLB) is a citrus disease known for causing significant production losses, and its potential introduction into Peru looms on the horizon. The aim of this study was to assess the potential economic losses within the Central Jungle's orange production chain, specifically in the Region Junín. This assessment involved simulating the spread of HLB under prospective scenarios spanning from 2026 to 2045, aiming to estimate the cost-benefit of preventing these losses through the implementation of a national phytosanitary program (PNF). The methodology employed in this study comprised administering questionnaires to local growers and estimating economic losses across three scenarios. The first scenario assumed a baseline production trend without HLB presence, while the second scenario considered an epidemiological situation with HLB but without the implementation of a PNF. The third scenario factored in HLB with varying degrees of adoption among PNF-affiliated growers. The findings highlight several risk factors contributing to the potential spread of HLB in Junín. The epidemiological model reveals that HLB can swiftly render young trees unproductive. Cumulatively, economic losses from 2026 to 2045 could reach a staggering US$ 371,146 thousand if no intervention takes place. However, this figure could be significantly reduced to US$ 44,890 thousand if 100% of growers embrace the PNF. Such public policy measures would not only prevent production losses but also generate substantial social benefits. These scenarios underscore the stark negative impacts HLB could inflict on the local orange production chain. The implementation of the PNF proves to be a critical intervention, preventing production losses, preserving jobs, and safeguarding related economic activities. Without timely public intervention, the economic losses at stake could render the agribusiness sector unsustainable. <![CDATA[Halquinol and nanoencapsulated essential oils: A comparative study on growth performance, intestinal morphology and meat quality in broiler chickens]]> Abstract Diets supplemented with halquinol and/or nanoencapsulated essential oils (N-EOs) have shown positive effects on the productive parameters of broiler chickens. However, there is limited comparative evidence between these two products. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of N-EOs blends with halquinol as dietary supplements for broiler chickens. A total of 500 male Cobb 500 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary groups. The control group received a conventional diet supplemented with halquinol (60%), while the experimental groups received supplementation with N-EOs blends derived from soursop (S), lemon (L), and eucalyptus (E) in different proportions: T1 (S:33.33%, L:33.33%, E:33.33%), T2 (S:50%, L:25%, E:25%), T3 (S:25%, L:50%, E:25%), and T4 (S:25%, L:25%, E:50%). The trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that the T1 and T4 groups obtained the highest values (p &lt; 0.05) for average daily growth rate and breast yield. The feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in groups T1 and T4 (p &lt; 0.05). All N-EOs supplemented groups exhibited higher carcass yield (p &lt; 0.05). At day 42, the T1 group displayed increased villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio in the duodenum (p &lt; 0.01), while all experimental groups showed increased villus width in the jejunum and ileum (p &lt; 0.05). Texture analysis revealed that N-EOs-treated groups had texture values similar to halquinol, except for the T1 group, which significantly increased hardness (p &lt; 0.05). Bromatological analysis showed that the T4 group significantly improved the percentage of crude protein, fat, and ash compared to the halquinol-supplemented group (p &lt; 0.05). Additionally, the T1 and T4 groups exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation (p &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with N-EOs holds promise as a potential alternative to halquinol, with the added advantage of improved oxidative stability. <![CDATA[Integrating <em>in situ</em> conservation of plant genetic resources with <em>ex situ</em> conservation management: Involving custodian farmers, benefits and their willingness to accept compensation]]> Abstract Compensation for custodian farmers to provide agrobiodiversity-conservation services in their farms (in situ) is an emerging global approach because it can generate public benefits when it comes to important plant genetic resources (PGRs) for food and agriculture. This review focused on: i) the integration of in situ conservation to the PGR management involving custodian farmers in a systematic conservation approach; ii) the private benefits obtained by custodian farmers to increase their willingness to actively participate in the conservation service; and iii) the willingness to accept (WTA) compensation of the farmers in providing conservation service relative to opportunity costs. The most recent approaches suggest the integration of in situ conservation with ex situ conservation management for efficient conservation programmes, especially in relation to governance of local agrobiodiversity. Involving custodian farmers in the comprehensive genetic-improvement system appears to be an activity that increases their willingness to participate in agrobiodiversity conservation schemes. Farmers receive private benefits, which are simultaneously reflected in the provision of public benefits. Therefore, WTA compensation, which employs mechanisms in the design of payments for better agro-environmental conservation services, controls the opportunity costs. Overall, farmers seem willing to participate in any type of compensation scheme that is proposed in the different countries. Furthermore, it is possible to capture the WTA, therefore significant progress requires more studies of primary schemes, in-depth analysis to capture farmers' preferences on economic, socio-cultural, and environmental factors in scheme design, and the implementation of incentive policies designed with pragmatic tools. <![CDATA[Efecto de antibiosis, antixenosis y la variación natural de tricomas de especies silvestres y comerciales en tomate sobre el desarrollo de <em>Bactericera cockerelli</em>]]> Resumen Bactericera cockerelli es una plaga económicamente relevante para cultivos de solanáceas. La presencia de tricomas foliares con la que cuentan ciertas especies silvestres constituye importantes recursos genéticos para programas de fitomejoramiento en términos de resistencia a plagas. En este estudio se evaluó la influencia de los tricomas foliares de especies silvestres y cultivares comerciales de tomate en la preferencia, desarrollo y fecundidad de B. cockerelli. Los resultados mostraron que las especies silvestres fueron menos preferidas por el psílido que los cultivares comerciales. Los insectos mostraron un porcentaje de asentamiento menor en S. habrochaites en comparación con las demás especies. En cuanto a la supervivencia, el menor porcentaje se desarrolló en S. habrochaites con el 24% y S. arcanum con un 40%. La media de oviposición más baja se encontró en S. habrochaites con dos huevos, los cuales no eclosionaron, además, de ser la única especie que mostró la presencia de tricomas glandulares tipo IV (113,86 ± 48,1) y VIc (27,3 ± 2,3) por mm2, asimismo su presencia se correlacionó negativamente con el número de adultos posados. S. arcanum fue otra especie que influyó negativamente en el comportamiento y desarrollo del insecto, sin embargo, estos atributos no fueron a causa de la presencia de tricomas. Los mecanismos de defensa manifestados por S. habrochaites y S. arcanum hacia B. cockerelli pueden ser utilizados como recurso de introgresión de genes para el manejo de esta plaga al reducir su potencial biológico.<hr/>Abstract Bactericera cockerelli is an economically relevant pest of solanaceous crops. The presence of leaf trichomes that certain wild species have constitutes important genetic resources for plant breeding programs in terms of resistance to pests. In this study, the influence of leaf trichomes of wild species and commercial tomato cultivars on the preference, development and fecundity of B. cockerelli was evaluated. The results showed that wild species were less preferred by the psyllid than commercial cultivars. Insects showed a lower settlement percentage in S. habrochaites compared to the other species. Regarding survival, the lowest percentage developed in S. habrochaites with 24% and S. arcanum with 40%. The lowest oviposition average was found in S. habrochaites with two eggs, which did not hatch, in addition to being the only species that showed the presence of glandular trichomes type IV (113.86 ± 48.1) and VIc (27.3 ± 2.3) per mm2, and its presence was negatively correlated with the number of perched adults. S. arcanum was another species that negatively influenced the behavior and development of the insects; however, these attributes were not due to the presence of trichomes. The defense mechanisms expressed by S. habrochaites and S. arcanum towards B. cockerelli can be used as a resource for gene introgression for the management of this pest by reducing its biological potential. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution and effective depth of roots of camucamu with and without mulch]]> Resumo Em América do Sul o camu-camu vêm sendo domesticado, no entanto, para seu cultivo ainda são poucas as informações técnicas para garantir sua adaptabilidade e produtividade em locais com estação seca bem definida. O objetivo neste estudo foi caracterizar a distribuição espacial do sistema radicular e determinar a profundidade efetiva (PE) das raízes em plantas de camu-camu com e sem cobertura vegetal morta (CVM) em condições de terra firme. Num pomar foram escolhidas ao acaso 3 plantas com 3, 5 e 7 anos, cada. Logo foi colocada CVM composta de capim (Trachypogon plumosus) em uma planta de cada idade na projeção da copa. Após 12 meses o volume e PE das raízes nas plantas de 3 anos com CVM foi de 200 mm3 e 0,3 m, e sem CVM foi de 500 mm3 e 0,48 m, respectivamente. Nas plantas com 5 anos foi de 4000 mm3 e 0,43 m com CVM, e sem CVM foi de 6000 mm3 e 0,64 m; e nas plantas com 7 anos o volume e PE das raízes com CVM foram de 12000 mm3 e 0,58 m, e sem CVM de 10000 mm3 e 0,71 m, respectivamente. A profundidade efetiva equivalente ao 80% da concentração das raízes foi menor com o uso de cobertura vegetal morta, o que é muito importante para a cultura do camu-camu, pois permite aplicar uma lâmina de água mais precisa e eficiente por meio da irrigação.<hr/>Abstract In South America, o camu-camu has been domesticated, however, for its cultivation there is still little technical information to guarantee its adaptability and productivity in places with a well-defined dry season. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of the root system and determine the effective depth (EP) of roots in camu-camu plants with and without mulch (WM) in uplands conditions. In an orchard, 3 plants with 3, 5 and 7 years each were chosen at random. Then mulch composed of grass (Trachypogon plumosus) was placed on a plant of each age in the canopy projection. After 12 months, the volume and EP of the roots in the 3-year-old plants with mulch was 200 mm3 and 0.3 m, and without mulch it was 500 mm3 and 0.48 m, respectively. In 5-year-old plants it was 4000 mm3 and 0.43 m with mulch, and without mulch it was 6000 mm3 and 0.64 m; and in plants with 7 years old, the volume and PE of the roots with mulch were 12000 mm3 and 0.58 m, and without mulch of 10000 mm3 and 0.71 m, respectively. The effective depth equivalent to 80% of the root concentration was lower with the use of dead vegetation cover, which is very important for the camu-camu crop, as it allows the application of a more precise and efficient water layer through irrigation. <![CDATA[Soil health and dragon fruit cultivation: Assessing the impact on soil organic carbon]]> Abstract Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in soil quality and nutrient availability. Agricultural practices, such as tillage and crop rotations, can affect SOC levels. Pitahaya cultivation, a growing crop in dry tropical environments regions may affect soil quality due to weed management. This study aims to assess the relationship between alternative crop management and pitahaya species on SOC sequestration. Two plots, each for yellow (Selenicereus megalanthus) and red (Hylocereus Undatus) pitahaya, were established. Rice husks were used as a natural mulch to prevent weed growth as a new control alternative. Soil sampling was conducted at different depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) and locations (below plant vs row) within the pitahaya plots. The study found at the 0-5 cm section presents the highest concentration of organic carbon at 2.01%, 1.77%, and 1.97% below plant in red, yellow, and row in yellow plantation respectively. In comparison with 1.26% in row red plantation, they are significant differences. The analysis of carbon accumulation showed variability in each of the locations from 0-30 cm. Without significant differences with 50.34, 49.40, and 47.95 (t ha-1) below the yellow plant, row, and below red plant respectively. In the whole soil profile with 38,10 t ha-1 the row of the red plant is significantly different. Likewise, the age of the plantation or crop plays another important role in soil organic carbon sequestration. Despite having the same management, soil type, climate, and irrigation, the significant effect in this study shows that the different age of the plantations (2 years) marks a significant difference between the two plantations. The roots of the older plantation extend their roots more horizontally and achieve more organic carbon sequestration in the rows compared to the younger plantation. <![CDATA[Biofertilizer based on fish waste increases the yield of <em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L. Walp, <em>Zea mays</em> L., and the rhizospheric microbiota]]> Abstract Crops of Vigna unguiculata L. “cowpea” and Zea mays L. “corn” require chemical fertilizers for proper growth and development; however, its inadequate application contaminates the environment, creating the need to search new alternatives that reduce its impact. Due to this, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of a biofertilizer from fish wastes on the yield of cowpea and corn, and its effect on their rhizospheric microbiota. The physicochemical and biological characteristics of the biofertilizer were determined, and then was applied on the field under a completely randomized block design with six treatments: absolute control, chemical control, biofertilizer at 1%, 1.25%, 1.5% and 1.25% plus chemical fertilizer. The application of biofertilizer at 1, 1.25 and 1.5% increased the height, root length and yield of cowpea; however, the increase percentages were lower than those obtained with chemical fertilizer and the biofertilizer at 1.25% plus chemical fertilizer. In the case of corn, all treatments with biofertilizer increased the growth and yield of aerial biomass compared to the control, and the percentages of increase exceeded the chemical fertilizer in terms of the number of leaves, length and root biomass. In addition, the biofertilizer increased the microbial fertility of the soil expressed as the number of colony-forming units of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms per gram of soil in both crops. In conclusion, a positive effect of the biofertilizer from fish wastes was evidenced, which increased the yield of cowpea and corn, as well as an increase in soil microbial fertility. <![CDATA[Application of microencapsulated <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. against <em>Moniliophthora roreri</em> during the vegetative development of cocoa]]> Abstract Ecuador is one of the leading producers of fine aroma cocoa worldwide, involving around 100,000 producer families. On the American continent, the largest producer is Brazil, with 18%, followed by Ecuador and Colombia, and it is estimated that more than 20 million people depend directly on this crop. Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frost pot rot, has been a cause of great concern due to the production losses it has caused, which in 2022 amounted to 80% in different cocoa-producing provinces of Ecuador and worldwide losses of 30% performance they are estimates. This study aimed to determine the biological control potential of microcapsules made with Trichoderma spp spore solution against M. roreri. The In vitro evaluation of the microcapsules did not show significant results in the percentage of inhibition, and this was not the case in the direct evaluation on the farm, where the severity in the 15-day-old fruits showed 0% external and internal affectation with the use of microcapsules in its liquid presentation. Additionally, the evolution of the microcapsules in 28-day-old fruits was observed in severity from 1 to 25% with intercalated applications. Beneficial fungi were applied first, followed by pathogens; though, when the pathogen was applied first, and then the beneficial fungus, the increased severity of external and internal disease was 26-75% and 80-100%, respectively. In conclusion, using microcapsules based on Trichoderma strains at the early ages of the fruits generates protection against M. roreri throughout the vegetative development of the fruit. <![CDATA[Towards a productive model for the Sacha Inchi value chain: A scientometric approach]]> Abstract The diversification of agricultural and livestock production matrixes has the potential to generate value-added products in industrial and promising crops. Specifically, the countries in the Amazon basin have in the Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) a species oriented toward market niches such as food, oils, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels, whose exploitation and use are aligned with the bioeconomy and circular economy megatrends. The aim of this publication was to identify and analyze the evolution of scientific and technological research in the Sacha Inchi value chain worldwide, based on a methodological design that combines technological intelligence, the analysis of scientific landscapes and bibliometric indicators and content analysis, to establish a baseline for the identification of key elements for the design of an agro-industrial production model. The methodology includes the integration of surveillance and scientific intelligence methods, scientometrics, and critical analysis of key documents selected through bibliometric indicators and expert judgment. The analysis made it possible to identify the research development lines in Sacha Inchi worldwide, and the reference documents that comprise key elements of the activities from cultivation to processing of the product obtained. The basic investigations identified will contribute to the development of productive models of Sacha Inchi in Colombia, where technical aspects must be adapted or validated in suitable agroecological zones or with productive potential to improve the yield and quality of seed for agroindustry. Medium-term research is required to genetically identify the planting material, to facilitate the selection of materials oriented to the production of fruits with the quality required by the agroindustry. <![CDATA[Efecto de factores bióticos y abióticos en el contenido de flavonoides en hojas de <em>Passiflora</em> sp. L.: Una revisión sistemática]]> Resumen El género Passiflora aporta el 17% a la producción mundial de flavonoides, por lo cual, dada la creciente demanda de dichos metabolitos, se han estudiado diversas estrategias para aumentar su producción en estas plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la información publicada sobre la relación del contenido de flavonoides en hojas de plantas del género Passiflora, la presencia de microorganismos, la fertilidad del suelo, el uso de abonos y acondicionadores edáficos, el manejo agronómico, factores climáticos y el estado fenológico de la planta. La búsqueda se realizó en nueve bases de datos: Web of Science, Nature, Agris, Dialnet, Scielo, Science Database-ProQuest, Scopus (Elsevier), Springer y EBSCOhost y dos motores de búsqueda: Google Académico y Semantic Scholar, obteniendo 19 artículos indexados. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los tratamientos que incluyen un solo factor biótico o abiótico en el cultivo aumentan la producción de flavonoides a nivel foliar hasta un 380%, mientras que la combinación de diferentes factores bióticos y abióticos aumentan la producción de este grupo de metabolitos hasta en un 491% a nivel foliar. Es entonces necesario evaluar el manejo agronómico integral del cultivo de Passiflora sp. para incrementar la concentración de estos metabolitos en hojas de ramas productivas con frutos en maduración plena listos para recolección (código BBCH 89), sin perder la posibilidad de uso del producto principal actual del cultivo, los frutos.<hr/>Abstract The genus Passiflora accounts for 17% of global flavonoid production, and several strategies have been explored to increase their production in these plants, given the growing demand for these metabolites. The aim of this study is to examine the published literature on the correlation between flavonoid concentrations in Passiflora genus leaves and factors such as microorganism presence, soil fertility, fertilizer use, soil conditioners, agronomic practices, weather patterns, and plant phenology. The search was conducted across nine databases. Web of Science, Nature, Agris, Dialnet, Scielo, Science Database-ProQuest, Scopus (Elsevier), Springer, and EBSCOhost and two search engines: Google Scholar and Semantic Scholar, obtaining 19 indexed articles. The results indicate that treatments incorporating a single biotic or abiotic factor in the crop lead to a 380% increase in the production of flavonoids at the leaf level, while the combination of different biotic and abiotic factors leads to a 491% increase in the production of this group of metabolites at the leaf level. It is essential to assess the integrated agronomic management of Passiflora sp. to increase the concentration of these metabolites in the leaves of productive branches with fully ripened fruits ready for harvest (BBCH code 89), without losing the possibility of using the current main product of the crop. <![CDATA[Maracuyá (<em>Passiflora edulis</em>): Composición nutricional, compuestos bioactivos, aprovechamiento de subproductos, biocontrol y fertilización orgánica en el cultivo]]> Resumen El maracuyá (Passiflora edulis), es una fruta tropical apreciada por su atractivo y valor nutricional. Siendo la variedad amarilla (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) y variedad la morada (Passiflora edulis f. edulis) las especies más conocidas; ambas ricas en carbohidratos, proteínas, lípidos y compuestos bioactivos. A pesar de su potencial, los subproductos del maracuyá, como las semillas y la cáscara, son infrautilizados, a pesar de ser fuentes de compuestos fenólicos y carotenoides. Las hojas son consideradas insignificantes, sin embargo, estas contienen nutrientes y efectos medicinales beneficiosos para la salud. No obstante, estos subproductos poseen diversos usos y aplicaciones. En este sentido, este trabajo busca documentar investigaciones referentes al maracuyá y sus subproductos, enfatizando en su composición y sus posibles usos en productos agroindustriales. Además de plantear estrategias de biocontrol de plagas para preservar la calidad del cultivo y la implementación de fertilizantes orgánicos en los cultivos, promoviendo prácticas agrícolas sostenibles. En este sentido, es urgente no solo diversificar la agroindustria y desarrollar nuevos productos, sino también contribuir a la reducción del impacto ambiental y fomentar prácticas agrícolas sostenibles. El aprovechamiento integral del maracuyá emerge como una estrategia clave para avanzar hacia una producción más eficiente y sostenible.<hr/>Abstract Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a tropical fruit appreciated for its attractiveness and nutritional value. The yellow variety (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) and the purple variety (Passiflora edulis f. edulis) are the best-known species, both rich in carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and bioactive compounds. Despite their potential, passion fruit by-products, such as seeds and peel, are underutilized, despite being sources of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. The leaves are considered insignificant, yet they contain nutrients and medicinal effects beneficial to health. Nevertheless, these by-products have diverse uses and applications. In this sense, this work seeks to document research on passion fruit and its by-products, emphasizing their composition and possible uses in agroindustrial products. In addition to propose pest biocontrol strategies to preserve the quality of the crop and the implementation of organic fertilizers in crops, promoting sustainable agricultural practices. In this sense, it is urgent not only to diversify the agroindustry and develop new products, but also to contribute to the reduction of environmental impact and promote sustainable agricultural practices. The integrated use of passion fruit emerges as a key strategy for moving towards more efficient and sustainable production. <![CDATA[Aprovechamiento integral de la Mosca Soldado Negra: Bioconversión, sostenibilidad y desafíos emergentes]]> Resumen La mosca soldado negra (MSN) ha captado la atención de la comunidad científica debido a su destacada eficiencia en la transformación de desechos orgánicos en materias primas integrables en la cadena de valor. Se llevó a cabo una revisión bibliométrica y bibliográfica con el objetivo de elucidar el papel crucial que desempeña la bioconversión de materia orgánica en la configuración de sistemas sustentables de economía circular. El análisis reveló que las larvas de MSN (LMSN) han demostrado ser efectivas en la bioconversión de residuos comunes como desechos domésticos y ganaderos, generando biomasa útil. A pesar de estos avances, persiste la exploración de nuevas fuentes de materia orgánica para mitigar su impacto ambiental. Tecnologías emergentes permiten procesar eficientemente la biomasa de LMSN, generando productos sustitutos de materiales poco amigables con el entorno. Aunque la literatura destaca las ventajas de la MSN en la construcción de modelos de economía circular, se identifican obstáculos como la limitada legislación, falta de incentivos para productores, preocupaciones por patógenos y contaminantes y la baja aceptación pública de esta especie. Sin embargo, la creciente tendencia en el interés científico sugiere que la MSN podría desempeñar un papel central en la edificación de sociedades sostenibles en el futuro.<hr/>Abstract The black soldier fly (BSF) has garnered the attention of the scientific community due to its outstanding efficiency in transforming organic waste into raw materials that can be incorporated into the value chain. A bibliometric and bibliographic review was conducted to elucidate the pivotal role played by the bioconversion of organic matter in shaping sustainable circular economy systems. The analysis revealed that black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have proven effective in the bioconversion of common waste, such as household and livestock waste, yielding valuable biomass. Despite these advancements, the exploration of new sources of organic matter persists to mitigate its environmental impact. Emerging technologies enable the efficient processing of BSFL biomass, yielding substitutes for environmentally unfriendly materials. Although the literature emphasizes the advantages of BSF in constructing circular economy models, obstacles such as limited legislation and insufficient incentives for producers, concerns about pathogens and contaminants, and low public acceptance of this species are identified. However, the growing trend in scientific interest suggests that BSF could play a central role in building sustainable societies in the future.