versión On-line ISSN 1727-9933
Rev. peru biol. v.11 n.2 Lima jul./dic. 2004
(1) Plant Resources Center, University of Texas at Austin &
(2) Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
A new species restricted to the montane forest of Amazonas is recognized as new and described herein.
Keywords: Campyloneurum, Polypodiaceae, fern, Peru.
Se reconoce y describe como especie nueva una población restringida a los bosques montanos de Amazonas.
Palabras clave: Campyloneurum, Polypodiaceae, helecho, Perú.
The genus Campyloneurum (Polypodiaceae) includes over 50 species distributed from southern USA to northern Argentina (Lellinger 1988; León 1993a, b). This genus includes predominantly entire leaf species (León 1993a). Among Neotropical species, León (1993a) informally recognized the C. repens group, which is characterized by long creeping rhizomes, fronds with entire short-petiolate leaves and non-divided areoles. This group was recognized for the Peruvian flora with four species (C. fasciale (Willd.) C. Presl, C. fuscosquamatum Lellinger, C. ophiocaulon (Klotzsch) Fée, and C. repens (Aubl.) C. Presl). One interesting population from northern Peru with close affinities to this species group is recognized here as new.
Campyloneurum amazonensis B. León, sp. nov.
Type: Peru. Amazonas. ca. 1218 km trail km E of La Peca in Serrania de Bagua, 18001950 m, A.H. Gentry et al. 22930 (Holotype: USM; isotypes: AMAZ, F, MO, UC).
Rhizomata longa repentia, 3 mm lata; paleae ca. 2.5 cm anguste lanceolatae, leviter clathratae, apice apiculatae. Frondes 18-35 cm longae. Petioli breves, laminae chartaceae vel sub-coriacea; venae areolatae, areolae apertae, venae secundae flexuosae, adaxialiter prominulae.
Differt a Campyloneurum repens squamis cellulis luminis flavidus et cellulis parvus.
Rhizome black, 2,5-3 mm wide, rhizome scales lightly brown, spreading, linear-lanceolate, 2,5-3,5 mm long x 0,5-0,7 mm wide, scale base biauriculate, auricles short, slightly clathrate in the center of the scale, cell lumina yellowish and cell walls bown, margins differentiate with non-clathrate cells. Phyllopodia 1 mm long, 2 mm wide, 0,5-1 cm apart. Fronds 18-35 cm long; petiole 0,4-0,9 cm long; lamina 0,8-2,5 (-3 cm) wide, chartaceous-sub coriaceous, apices acuminate, margin cartilaginous, slightly undulate, bases asymmetrical, cuneate, indument of inconspicuous, sparse short hairs abaxially; midrib prominent slightly ranurate adaxially, secondary veins prominulous, slightly flexuosous, 65-70° divergent, 3,5-5 mm apart; 3-5 open areoles between margin and midrib, each non-costal areolae with two free excurrent veinlets, veinlets ending in hydathodes on the upper side; 1 or 2 free veinlets along the margin, fertile or sterile; stomata polocytic. Sori roundish, subterminal on the excurrent veinlet, non-paraphysate; annulus with 15 cells, immature or abortive spores seen.
Additional specimens examined
Peru. Amazonas, Province Bagua, 12 km E of La Peca, 1700 m, 23 June 1978, P.J. Barbour 2487 (F, MO, UC); P.J. Barbour 2495 (F, UC); Province Bongará, N by trail from Pedro Ruiz, 5°49'S, 78°01'W, 2300 m, 31 Aug-2 Sep 1983, Smith & Vásquez 4878 (AMAZ, TEX); 24 km west-southwest (245°) of Pomacocha, 22002400 m, J.J. Wurdack 844 (F, UC, US, USM); Dist. Sipasbamba, Shilla, 1900 m, 5 May 1981, Young & Eisenberg 352a (MO, NY, TEX).
Campyloneurum amazonensis is distinguished from C. repens by rhizome scales narrowly lanceolate with cells oblong versus narrowly oblong, and less than 20 cells (Fig 1d) versus more than 35 cells in a row immediately above the insertion area (Fig. 1e). In C. amazonensis, lamina basis are shortly decurrent.
This new species is known from the montane forests in the Utcubamba-Chiriaco basins, between 1700 and 2400 m elevation. It is represented within the Zona Reservada Cordillera de Colán. It appears to be restricted to Peru.
The following key, based on León (1993b) provides a tool for identifying this new species from others in Peru with non-divided areoles and rhizome scales less than 5 mm long.
1. Cell lumina dark yellow or almost occluded; rhizome scales dark brown, linear.
1. Cell lumina transparent or yellowish, not occluded; rhizome scales linear-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate.
2. Apex of rhizome scales obtuse; rhizome diameter usually more than 3 mm wide.
2. Apex of the rhizome scales acuminate; rhizome diameter usually 3mm or less.
3. Rhizome scales with differentiated margins.
4. Rhizome scale bases less than 1 mm wide.
4. Rhizome scale bases more than 1 mm wide.
3. Rhizome scales without differentiated margins.
5. Lamina narrowly lanceolate, base long decurrent.
5. Lamina broadly lanceolate, base broad cuneate or short decurrent.
Thanks to Alan R. Smith (UC) for his support and for earlier discussion about this newly described taxon, and to Benjamin Øllgaard for his advice and encouragement. I thank José Roque G. for help and advice in preparing Figure 1.
Lellinger, D.B. 1988. Some new species of Campyloneurum and a provisional key to the genus. Amer. Fern J. 78(1): 1434. [ Links ]
León, B. 1993a A Taxonomic Revision of the fern genus Campyloneurum. Ph.D. Thesis Aarhus University, Denmark. [ Links ]
León, B. 1993b Campyloneurum. Pp. 158173. In: R.M. Tryon & R.G. Stolze, Pteridophyta of Peru. Fieldiana Bot. n.s. 32. [ Links ]
(2) Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Av. Arenales 1256, Lima-14, Perú.
E-mail: Blanca León email@example.com