Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú
versión impresa ISSN 1022-5129
BURSTEIN ALVA, Sonia. Ciclosporosis: una parasitosis emergente (I). Aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos. Rev. gastroenterol. Perú [online]. 2005, vol.25, n.4, pp. 328-335. ISSN 1022-5129.
Purpose: Determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis in asymptomatic patients consulting a physician, or dwellers of marginal urban settlements surrounding Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: The population was composed of 3,259 individuals: 2,968 individuals between 1 month and 87 years of age, who consulted a private physician because of digestive disorders, particularly diarrhea, and 291 individuals between 5 months and 75 years of age from marginal areas, all apparently healthy. The presence of Cyclospora was investigated through "fresh" microscopic techniques using a saline solution and Lugol`s solution. A new staining technique described in other publication was used. A record was created containing all clinical and epidemiological data, which were assessed statistically. Results: Cycloscopora incidence was 7.3% in the first group, and 41.6% in the second group. A higher rate was observed in young and elder adults up to 60-year-old. No major seasonal incidence was found. Clinical signs/symptoms for individuals consulting a private physician were mainly diarrhea and abdominal pain while individuals from marginal urban areas mainly showed meteorism, abdominal plain, occasional diarrhea and general symptoms such as fatigue and weight loss. Conclusions: Cyclospora showed a high incidence, particularly in marginal urban areas. Two types of clinical signs/symptoms were found: an acute and very severe condition that can cause dehydration, and a chronic condition with several digestive signs/symptoms, particularly meteorism and abdominal pain. Individuals consulting a private physician show acute and chronic episodes while individuals from marginal urban areas do show a chronic condition. Apparently individuals showing acute episodes are immunologically exposed to the parasite, but they do not acquire immunity later in spite of the treatment because they may become re-infected from time to time. However, individuals showing chronic episodes apparently keep a host-parasite balance due to a permanent contact with the parasite. The contamination source appears to be the water. Therefore all required epidemiological actions shall be taken to prevent this problem from reaching higher dimensions.
Palabras llave : Cyclospora cayetanensis; prevalence; clinical aspects; epidemiology; Lima, Peru.