Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú
ISSN 1022-5129 versión impresa
VILDOZOLA, Herman, BAZUL, Víctor, CAMBILLO, Emma et al. Prevalencia de la infección y factores de riesgo para Hepatitis B en dos grupos de gestantes adolescentes en relación al número de parejas sexuales. Rev. gastroenterol. Perú, jul.-set. 2006, vol.26, no.3, p.242-258. ISSN 1022-5129.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Hepatitis B has different routes of transmission and it is maintained in human populations mainly via transmission from person to person during intense physical contact, such as perinatal contact, contact during hetero and homosexual intercourse and non-sexual physical contact between children, their mothers and siblings. Migration from the provinces to the big cities of the country, added to changes in social behavior, specially among young people, have lead to an increase in unprotected sexual encounters, with the resulting greater risk of contracting hepatitis B. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 1048 adolescent women between the ages of 14 and 19, pregnant and apparently healthy, who came to the Perinatal Maternal Institute (IMP) between August 2003 and February 2004. The sample included 52 promiscuous pregnant young women with 3 or more sexual partners or contacts. After informed consent, they all filled a clinical epidemiological chart and a 5mL blood sample was taken to determine antiHBc IgG, HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe using the third generation ELISA method. RESULTS: Sixty eight point seven percent (68.7%) were older than 16 years, 29.7% had not been born in Lima, 6.1% had been born in the jungle and 10.4% had lived in the jungle, 30.1% were from San Juan de Lurigancho. Fourteen point three percent (14.3%) referred having had two partners and 4.3% three or more, 5.4% had three or more sexual contacts and 61.5% said that their partner never used a condom. Over 98% referred that they had not had jaundice or Hepatitis A, B or C. Twelve point four percent (12.4%) of the partners were womanizers, 3.1% visited prostitutes, 8.4% had another partner, 23.3% said that they liked anal sex, 3% were alcoholics, 9% used drugs, 2% had been in jail and 5.7% had received blood transfusions. The prevalence of anti-HBc IgG was 3.53% and for HBsAg it was 0.67%. A statistically significant association (p<0.026) was found between the risk of infection and having been born elsewhere from Lima, with a history of jaundice (p<0.02) and with having lived in the jungle (p<0.001) and, surprisingly, with a history of hepatitis A (p<0.074). The application of the partner perception indicator established that when the partner had three or more infection risk factors compared to none, there was a 2.37 times greater risk of hepatitis B. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV infection at the IMP has increased over the last 7 years by 18.45% and 76.31% the rate of HBsAg carriers. There was a positive correlation between HBV infection and the number of sexual partners, although it did not reach statistical significance. The risk indicator of the perception of the partnersí sexual behavior is a marker of greater risk of HBV infection among those ranked as high risk.
Palabras llave: Hepatitis B; Prevalence; risk factors; pregnant adolescents.
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