Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú
versión impresa ISSN 1022-5129
FRISANCHO, Oscar E. y ICHIYANAGUI RODRIGUEZ, Carlos. Spleen infarction and S hemoglobinopathies S in the high altitude lands. Rev. gastroenterol. Perú [online]. 2012, vol.32, n.1, pp. 68-78. ISSN 1022-5129.
The hemoglobin S is a consequence of the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of beta globin chain. The problem arises when some individuals with Hb S is moved to the mountains and exposed to hypoxia. The decrease in oxygen saturation distorts the red blood cell with HbS-shaped crescent (sickle cell). Sickle cell (rigid and fragile) tends to adhere to the other red blood cells, generating a series of intravascular alterations that can lead to tissue ischemia or infarction. The spleen by type of movement and lack of lateral communications between the branches of the splenic artery was the most susceptible to sickle cell crisis. Splenic infarction at altitude corresponding to different circumstances can evolve in three stages: a) Acute (focal, uncomplicated), b) massive attack (more than 50% of parenchyma) and c) spontaneous rupture. Early diagnosis is crucial, allowing the quick and timely introduction of various measures, including adequate hydration and oxygenation continues until its evacuation to lower altitude locations. These measures would reduce the phenomenon of sickle and some patients may overcome this acute trance without major complications. The delay in diagnosis leads to action that can exacerbate tissue hypoxia and cause ischemia or infarction of various organs. A large population of black and mixed race of African descent living in the Peruvian coast, 10% and 2% respectively have hemoglobin S; Caucasian subjects with Mediterranean ancestry this hemoglobin also can carry. It is therefore essential to disseminate within the clinicians working in regions of high status and to thus prevent potentially fatal complications in patients with Hb S; is also essential to promote preventive measures for individuals with African or Mediterranean ancestry know their sickle cell status before traveling to places above 2,500 m.
Palabras llave : hemoglobin S; spleen infarction; sickle cell trait.