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Anales de la Facultad de Medicina

versión impresa ISSN 1025-5583


ZORRILLA, Víctor et al. Risk factors that determine leishmaniasis transmission at Llaucano valley, Chota-Cajamarca. An. Fac. med. [online]. 2005, vol.66, n.1, pp.33-42. ISSN 1025-5583.

Objectives: To determine the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Material and Methods: Personal interviews were done to 727 inhabitants of 140 houses in eight localities of Llaucano valley, Chota province, Cajamarca, searching for leishmaniasis cases. The risk factors were analyzed using odds ratio calculation, 95% confidence interval in each selected variable and Epi Info 2000 program. Results: Two hundred and six cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were diagnosed, 63 with active lesions and 143 with scars. Leishmaniasis was present in all age groups without sex differences, but children under 10 years old were more affected. High percentage of cases showed lesions in face and arms suggesting intra and peridomiciliary transmission at Llaucano valley. The risk factors for leishmaniasis transmission were identified as following: To have the house located in the rural area (OR=3,97, CI95% 1,94-8,14), to sleep in country shelters (OR=4,59, CI95% 3,22-6,54), to cultivate coffee (OR=7,83, CI95% 3,57-17,17), fruits (OR=3,62, CI95% 1,72-7,61) and sugar cane (OR=4,99, CI95% 2,42-10,27), the crowding conditions of life in some families (6 or more persons for each house) (OR=3,25, CI95% 1,50-7,10), the presence of domestic animals around the house, mainly dogs (OR=5,62, CI95% 2,68-11,82), presence of sandflies in the domiciliary environment (OR=5,62, CI95% 2,68-11,82) that penetrate the "tapia" wall holes. Paccha Baja, Chontabamba and Matibamba were the areas of leishmaniasis higher transmission at Llaucano valley. The prevalence rate was 283,4/1000. Conclusions: Llaucano valley is an endemic Andean leishmaniasis area with fast spreading of this disease; disease transmission is associated to house factors and human behavior.

Palabras clave : risk factors; rural zones; poverty areas; Peru, Cajamarca, Llaucano valley.

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