versión impresa ISSN 1726-2216
Ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutical products in freshwater environments is an emergent research globally. The aim of this research was to evaluate acute ecotoxicological effects of seven pharmaceutical products widely used in Peru: four antimicrobians (Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazole), two analgesics (Ibuprofen and Paracetamol), and a sedative (Diazepan) on freshwater flea Daphnia magna Strauss, 1820 (Crustacea: Daphniidae). Relationships with the main physicochemical characteristics and molecule compounds were also assessed in order to evaluate environmental aquatic risks. Acute toxicity test were evaluated with five concentrations plus a control, with four repetitions, using a 6 x 4 CRB design . The following decreasing ecotoxicity sequence in terms of LC50 (mgL-1) at 96 h of exposure on D. magna was observed: Diazepan (17.1) > Paracetamol (62.3) > Ibuprofen (175) > Ciprofloxacin (230.6) > Trimethoprim (296) > Sulfamethoxazole (1480) > Amoxicillin (6950). Relationships between LogLC50 and excreted product proportion, logKow and solubility of pharmaceutical products were not found. Potential ecotoxicity indicated that Diazepan caused the highest aquatic risk. However, using the quotient risk only Paracetamol produced aquatic risk.
Palabras llave : Amoxicillin; Ciprofloxacin; Daphnia; Diazepan; Ibuprofen; Paracetamol; Trimethoprim.