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Horizonte Médico (Lima)

Print version ISSN 1727-558X


VELEZ, Pablo Andrés et al. Microbiota and sepsis. Horiz. Med. [online]. 2022, vol.22, n.2, e1692.  Epub July 07, 2022. ISSN 1727-558X.

Sepsis is the body’s overwhelming response to an infection. It is characterized by damage to the organs that may be irreversible and life-threatening. The gastrointestinal microbiome regulates a series of homeostatic mechanisms in the host, such as the immune function and the protection of the intestinal barrier, and the loss of normal intestinal microbial structure and function. Moreover, it has been associated with the onset of diseases of diverse characteristics. Recent evidence has shown a link between the gastrointestinal microbiome and sepsis: the alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiome increases the susceptibility to sepsis through various mechanisms, including the expansion of pathogenic intestinal bacteria, marked pro-inflammatory response and decreased production of beneficial microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids. Once sepsis is established, the alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiome worsens and the susceptibility to end-organ dysfunction increases. There is limited evidence that microbiome-based therapies, which include probiotics and selective digestive decontamination, can decrease the risk of sepsis and improve its outcomes in selected patient populations. However, safety concerns generate limited acceptance. While much of the evidence linking the gastrointestinal microbiome and sepsis has been established in preclinical studies, clinical evidence is still necessary in many areas.

Keywords : Sepsis; Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Probiotics; Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

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