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Acta Médica Peruana

On-line version ISSN 1728-5917


SHIRAISHI-ZAPATA, Carlos. Dexamethasone versus dimenhydrinate for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adult patients undergoing general and digestive surgery. Acta méd. peruana [online]. 2014, vol.31, n.4, pp.220-227. ISSN 1728-5917.

Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications in surgical patients. There have been a number of clinical guidelines and reviews that recommend different drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of PONV. Dexamethasone and dimenhydrinate drugs are widely used in our country for this purpose, but the scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of dimenhydrinate in the context of PONV, is scarce. Objective. To determine the dose of the drug (dimenhydrinate or dexamethasone) more effective in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adult patients undergoing general and laparoscopic surgery. Also determine the occurrence of nausea, vomiting, PONV, need for rescue treatment and adverse effects of both drugs. Material and Method. Clinic randomized trial performed in the Hospital II Essalud Talara, Piura, Peru, with 102 participants (18 men and 84 women) with a low or moderate risk for PONV (09 and 93 respectively), which were assigned into two groups of 51 patients each. A group of patients received dexamethasone (4 mg) and another dimenhydrinate (50 mg) after induction of general anesthesia. Results. The incidence of PONV in the dexamethasonetreated population was 7,84% and 39,22% in the population of patients who received dimenhydrinate. Conclusions. The dexamethasone administration of 4 mg during anesthesia provides better prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting over dimenhydrinate administration of 50 mg.

Keywords : postoperative nausea and vomiting; prevention and control; dexamethasone; dimenhydrinate; general surgery.

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