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Acta Médica Peruana

On-line version ISSN 1728-5917


ALVARADO-CLAROS, Vanessa G; NIETO-ZELAYA, Victoria G; TOVAR-CALDERON, Sandra N  and  NAVARRO, Juan José. Hemophagocytic síndrome secondary to visceral leishmaniasis in a toddler: report of a case. Acta méd. Peru [online]. 2017, vol.34, n.4, pp.328-332. ISSN 1728-5917.

The hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by an abnormal activation of the immune system. This condition may be primary or secondary to infectious, metabolic, immunological, or malignant conditions. Its incidence is 0.12 to 1 case per 100,000 children, and the survival time is around two months with no therapy. The condition is diagnosed with the occurrence of 5 of 8 criteria proposed by the International Histiocytosis Association, and its therapy is according the original etiology. We present the case of a 15-month old male patient, who was brought from Choluteca (an endemic area for leishmaniasis), who was admitted to the University Hospital with prolonged fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests showed pancytopenia, positive serology for Leishmania, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased ferritin levels. Visceral leishmaniasis and hemophagocytic syndrome were diagnosed. The patient received meglumine antimoniate for 28 days, and also methylprednisolone and prednisone; and he had a favorable outcome. The hemophagocytic syndrome may be secondary to visceral leishmaniasis, and its diagnosis should be promptly suspected in order to have timely therapy and a better prognosis

Keywords : Lymphohistiocytosis, hemophagocytic; Leishmaniasis, visceral; Hemophagocytic syndrome, reactive; Antimony.

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