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Revista Peruana de Ginecología y Obstetricia

On-line version ISSN 2304-5132


SOSA OLAVARRIA, Alberto et al. Trainini cardiac fulcrum in the fetal heart. Rev. peru. ginecol. obstet. [online]. 2023, vol.69, n.4, 00002.  Epub Dec 18, 2023. ISSN 2304-5132.

To demonstrate by dissection of anatomical specimens and prenatal ultrasonographic images of the fetal heart the presence of the cardiac fulcrum as a fixation structure supporting the helical myocardial band. Six hearts of fetuses between 20-24 weeks of gestational age resulting from spontaneous abortions were dissected, finding the cardiac fulcrum in the proximity of the aorta and connections with myocardial fibers. In 50 singleton pregnancies with fetuses between 18-37 weeks of gestation, fetal cardiac ultrasonography was used to obtain 2D, Doppler, color and three-dimensional modalities, STIC, HD Flow and speckle tracking, images, fulcrum measurements and its kinetics. With the described strategy, the presence of the cardiac fulcrum or myocardial lever was identified and demonstrated, establishing its anatomical characteristics, connections with myocardial fibers of the cardiac loop and the biometry according to gestational age. A hypothesis on the biomechanics or kinetics of the fulcrum during the cardiac cycle is formulated. In order for the heart to fulfill its function as an aspirating and impelling pump, it must have a support point, a lever or fulcrum, which constitutes a sort of muscle-tendon unit. This lever presents mixed displacements during myocardial torsion and detorsion. Its diameters increase progressively as gestation advances.

Keywords : Fetal heart; Heart fulcrum; Myocardial lever; Biomechanics; Cardiac kinetics; Cardiac bone; Ossa cordis.

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