SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.39 issue1Satisfaction and perceptions about aspects of the city that affect health, by socioeconomic status, 2010-2019, in LimaExtended-spectrum β-lactamases and virulence factors in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in nursing homes in Lima, Peru author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




  • Have no cited articlesCited by SciELO

Related links

  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO


Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica

Print version ISSN 1726-4634

Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica vol.39 no.1 Lima Jan./Mar. 2022  Epub Mar 31, 2022 

Originales breves

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 in health professionals of the peruvian social insurance

L. Yesenia Rodríguez-Tanta, Pharmaceutical chemist, Master of Science in Epidemiological Research

Diego André Ale-Mauricio, Pharmaceutical chemist

Violeta Saromo-Meléndez, Pharmaceutical chemist

Anaís Lazarte-Ramos, Licensed in Obstetrics

Elisa Gálvez-Dávila, Pharmaceutical chemist

Gisela Pecho-Arias, Pharmaceutical chemist

Jack Urruchi-Huertas, Pharmaceutical chemist

Paola Fernández-Rojas, Pharmaceutical chemist

Raquel Delgado-Escalante, Licensed in Obstetrics

1 Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación, EsSalud, Lima, Perú.

2 Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú.


The study aimed to evaluate a group of health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 in the Peruvian Social Health Insurance (EsSalud). A descriptive secondary analysis was carried out on a database that included responses from an online survey conducted by the Institutional Referral Center for Pharmacovigilance and Technovigilance of EsSalud. Of 144 participants, 66% showed a high level of knowledge and 81.2% had a positive attitude; however, 71.5% had an inadequate level of pharmacovigilance practice. Although EsSalud professionals demonstrated a high level of knowledge and positive attitude to implement pharmacovigilance, this is not reflected in the practice of this activity during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Strategies should be implemented to integrate pharmacovigilance into healthcare activities to benefit patient safety.

Keywords: Drug Safety; Pharmacovigilance; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Healthcare Workers; COVID-19


Pharmacovigilance is the science and activity related to the detection, evaluation, understanding and prevention of adverse effects of drugs or any related problem that causes unintended harm to the patient; one of its essential components is the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) 1. The Peruvian Pharmacovigilance System has been in place since 2000 and is managed by the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID). One of the institutions that is part of this system is the Peruvian Social Health Insurance (EsSalud) through the Institutional Referral Center for Pharmacovigilance and Technovigilance (CRI-EsSalud) 2.

Despite the fact that pharmacovigilance is part of health care activities, there is little evidence regarding the knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance by health care professionals in some parts of the world. A recent study estimated that slightly more than half (52.2%) of healthcare personnel had inadequate knowledge of pharmacovigilance 3 and up to 86.6% were unaware of the impact of ADR reporting 4 , 5. There are healthcare professionals who consider that reporting ADRs is an obligation rather than a healthcare task 6; however, it has also been reported that non-prescribing professionals report ADRs more frequently and with less knowledge of pharmacovigilance 7.

The role of pharmacovigilance during the COVID-19 pandemic is even more important because therapeutic alternatives have been used without sufficient scientific evidence for the treatment of COVID-19 8 - 10, which could result in more risks than benefits because their safety profiles in this type of patients are unknown. Therefore, this study aims to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pharmacovigilance in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in a group of Peruvian social security health professionals.


Motivation for the study: To determine whether pharmacovigilance activities during the COVID-19 pandemic were understood, accepted and put into practice by Peruvian social security health professionals.

Main findings: Despite the fact that most health professionals recognize the importance of implementing pharmacovigilance and are willing to do so, it is not usually applied during clinical practice.

Implications: This study identifies the problems related to the implementation of pharmacovigilance in the health care setting and proposes strategies to improve patient safety.


Design of the study

A descriptive secondary analysis conducted on a database that contains responses from an online survey conducted by the ESSALUD Institutional Referral Center for Pharmacovigilance and Technovigilance (CRI-ESSALUD) regarding pharmacovigilance knowledge, attitudes and practices in the context of COVID-19, aimed at health professionals during the months of June to August 2020.

Records of EsSalud health personnel were included. Duplicate records and those with at least one missing response in the database were excluded.


In January 2021, we requested authorization from CRI-ESSALUD to access the database with the responses from the pharmacovigilance survey. This database included 156 records and 40 variables distributed in information regarding: a) sociodemographic characteristics b) knowledge c) attitudes and d) pharmacovigilance practices. The database was sorted and the records that met the selection criteria were identified and then analyzed.


The sociodemographic information included sex, profession, city and work center, which included the variables “healthcare center” and “service” that was dichotomized into centers with or without inpatient care service, in accordance with what is described in numeral 6.8 about the activities of public and private health facilities of the NTS 123-MINSA/DIGEMID-V.01 “Technical health standard that regulates pharmacovigilance and technovigilance activities of pharmaceutical products, medical devices and sanitary products” 11.

The items that measure knowledge, attitudes and practices were standardized in categories and dichotomized as correct and incorrect answers. Scores were assigned to each section by adding them together. Binary responses were assigned a value of 1 if they were correct and 0 if they were incorrect. Likert scale questions were assigned a score of 0 when answered as “never”, 1 “rarely”, 2 “sometimes” and 3 “always”. The overall score for knowledge, attitudes and practices was dichotomized into “low” and “high” considering the median as the cut-off point.

Statistical analysis

For the univariate descriptive analysis of the categorical variables, we used relative and absolute frequencies. During the bivariate analysis for the comparison of proportions in contingency tables, we used the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test when more than 20% of the cells had expected values less than 5 or when any expected value was less than 1. To evaluate statistical significance, we considered a p-value of less than 0.05. All analyses were performed with STATA version 15.0.

Ethical criteria

This study was approved by the Specific Research Ethics Committee for COVID-19 of EsSalud. Likewise, the study was registered in the PRISA platform of the National Institute of Health with the registration code 1F00730F- EA69-4FD2-87B8-391F081B76D6 in strict compliance with current regulations.


Out of the 156 records in the database with complete pharmacovigilance survey results, eight were excluded because they were responses from health professionals from institutions other than EsSalud; and four were duplicates. Finally, the records of 144 health professionals were included, of which 63.9% were female, 42.4% were from Lima and the majority were pharmacists (36.1%) and physicians (35.4%) (Table 1).

Table 1 Characteristics of health professionals who participated in the survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19. 

Characteristics n (%)
Male 52 (36.1)
Female 92 (63.9)
Physician 51 (35.4)
Pharmaceutical chemist 52 (36.1)
Nurse 26 (18.1)
Other 15 (10.4)
Lima 61 (42.4)
Arequipa 18 (13.0)
Trujillo 8 (5.6)
Iquitos 7 (4.9)
Other 50 (34.1)
Type of health center
With inpatient service 111 (77.1)
Without inpatient service 33 (22.9)

Most had a high level of knowledge about pharmacovigilance (Figure 1); 97.2% adequately defined pharmacovigilance and 78.5% recognized its importance in the identification of new ADRs. Likewise, 81.3% recognized the existence of the Peruvian Pharmacovigilance System, 91% answered that all ADRs (known and unknown) should be reported for drugs used in COVID-19. It is noteworthy that 89.6% considered ivermectin to be an unsafe drug in the treatment of COVID-19 (Table 2). The level of knowledge was dependent on the profession p<0.001, 90% of the pharmacists and 54.9% of the physicians had a high level of knowledge in contrast to other health professionals. The city where the professionals work also showed significant differences (p=0.018), those from Lima and Trujillo had a higher level of knowledge (Table 3).

Figure 1 Level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 in EsSalud health professionals. 

Table 2 Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals on pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 (n=144). 

Questions n %
Do you know what pharmacovigilance is?
Yes 140 97.2
Are clinical trials sufficient to know the safety profile of drugs?
Yes 31 21.5
Do you believe there is a National Pharmacovigilance System?
Yes 117 81.3
What is an adverse drug reaction (ADR)?
An adverse effect, i.e., an unintended harmful response to a drug. 144 100
A problem related to drug quality 0 0.0
Doesn’t know 0 0.0
What type of ADRs should be reported for drugs used in COVID-19?
Known 4 2.8
Not known 9 6.2
Both 131 91
Do you know if EsSalud has considered the monitoring of ADRs in patients receiving COVID-19 pharmacological treatment?
Yes 76 52.8
Are you familiar with the institution’s ADR notification form (yellow sheet)?
Yes 105 72.9
Are you familiar with EsSalud’s ADR notification flow?
Yes 84 58.3
What is the purpose of reporting ADRs to COVID-19 drug treatment?
Preventing and minimizing patient harm 138 95.8
To comply with a bureaucratic/administrative requirement 5 3.5
Doesn’t know 1 0.7
Do you consider ivermectin to be a safe drug in the treatment of COVID-19?
Yes, it doesn’t require safety monitoring during use. 15 10.4
No, it requires safety monitoring during use. 129 89.6
In the case of identifying an adverse reaction to the drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19, do you agree to report it?
Agrees 139 96.5
Doesn’t agree 2 1.4
Doesn’t know 3 2.1
Do you believe that the system for reporting ADRs to the drugs used in COVID-19 benefits the patient?
Yes 137 95.1
No 2 1.4
Doesn’t know 5 2.1
In the event that you become aware of a suspected ADR to any COVID-19 drug, do you think that reporting it could have legal implications?
Yes 23 16.0
No 90 62.5
Doesn’t know 31 21.5
Do you consider that reporting a suspected ADR to COVID-19 drugs is a time-consuming activity with no results?
Yes 32 22.2
No 112 77.8
Have you ever reported an ADR in the adverse drug reaction notification form (yellow sheet) at EsSalud?
Never 62 43.0
Rarely 39 27.1
Sometimes 20 13.9
Always 23 16.0
Have you identified any ADR to any of the drugs foreseen in the treatment for COVID-19 and have you reported it?
Yes 15 10.4
No 113 78.5
Doesn’t know 16 11.1
Have you received training on Intensive Pharmacovigilance for COVID-19 drug treatment?
Yes 17 11.8
No 122 84.7
Doesn’t know 5 3.5
Are you participating in the implementation of intensive pharmacovigilance of COVID-19 drug treatment in EsSalud?
Yes 21 14.6
No 118 81.9
Doesn’t know 5 3.5
Have you read the safety communications on the proposed drug treatments for COVID-19 issued by IETSI-EsSalud?
Yes 91 63.2
No 53 36.8
How often do you usually read updates to the safety information in the pharmacological recommendations against COVID-19?
Never 6 4.2
Rarely 19 13.2
Some times 57 39.6
Always 62 43.0
How often do you check the technical data sheet to ensure the safe use of medicines?
Never 5 3.5
Rarely 7 4.8
Some times 80 55.6
Always 52 36.1

Table 3 Knowledge, attitudes and pharmacovigilance practices of health professionals in the context of COVID-19, according to their characteristics. 

Characteristics Knowledge Attitudes Practices
Low High p-value Low High p-value * Low High p-value
Male 23 (44.2) 29 (55.8) 0.052 a 12 (23.1) 40 (76.9) 0.317 a 42 (80.8) 10 (19.2) 0.065 a
Female 26 (28.3) 66 (71.7) 15 (16.3) 77 (83.7) 61 (66.3) 31 (33.7)
Physician 23 (45.1) 28 (54.9) <0.001 a 12 (23.5) 39 (76.5) 0.204 b 39 (76.5) 12 (23.5) 0.077 b
Pharmacist 4 (7.7) 48 (92.3) 7 (13.5) 45 (86.5) 32 (61.5) 20 (38.5)
Nurse 12 (46.2) 14 (53.8) 3 (11.5) 23 (88.5) 18 (69.2) 8 (30.8)
Other 10 (66.7) 5 (33.3) 5 (33.3) 10 (6.7) 14 (93.3) 1 (6.7)
Lima 23 (37.1) 39 (62.9) 0.013 b 12 (19.4) 50 (80.6) 0.101 b 46 (74.2) 16 (25.8) 0.236 b
Arequipa 11 (61.1) 7 (38.9) 7 (38.9) 11 (61.1) 16 (88.9) 2 (11.1)
Trujillo 3 (37.5) 5 (62.5) 2 (25.0) 6 (75.0) 6 (75.0) 2 (25.0)
Iquitos 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 0 (0.0) 7 (100.0) 4 (57.1) 3 (42.9)
Other 9 (18.4) 40 (81.6) 6 (12.2) 43 (87.8) 31 (63.3) 18 (36.7)
Health center
With inpatient service 36 (32.4) 75 (67.6) 0.459 a 24 (21.6) 87 (78.4) 0.105 a 74 (66.7) 37 (33.3) 0.018 a
Without inpatient service 13 (39.4) 20 (60.6) 3 (9.1) 30 (90.9) 29 (87.9) 4 (12.1)

a b Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test.

Positive attitudes to implement pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 were found in 81.2% of health professionals; and 95.1% recognized that reporting ADRs would benefit the patient. However, 16% considered that reporting ADRs could have legal implications and 22.2% thought that this activity was time-consuming. Furthermore, a high percentage of women had positive attitudes to implement pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 (Table 2).

The level of pharmacovigilance practices in the context of COVID-19 was low in 71.5% of the health professionals; 43% never reported an ADR and 10.4% identified an ADR and reported it to the CRI-EsSalud. Only 11.8% received training and less than 15% implemented intensive monitoring of patients exposed to “off-label” drugs (drugs outside the indications for which it was approved or used in a different way) against COVID-19. Of all the health professionals, 63.2% read the drug safety communications on “off-label” treatments for COVID-19 issued by the CRI- EsSalud and most (55.6%) “sometimes” reviewed the technical data sheet of the drugs approved by the regulatory agencies. Finally, a higher proportion of professionals working in centers without inpatient service had a “low” level of pharmacovigilance practices in the context of COVID-19 as opposed to those working in centers with inpatient service (p=0.018) (Table 3).


We found that most participants had a high level of pharmacovigilance knowledge in the context of COVID-19. One possible explanation is that, since the beginning of the pandemic, the CRI-EsSalud trained the institution’s professionals in the reporting of ADRs, mainly due to the use of drugs that have not been approved for the treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, it is possible that those who responded to the survey are those who received the training or were directly involved with pharmacovigilance activities at the institution, i.e., personnel of the pharmacovigilance committees or frequent ADR reporters.

Pharmacists had the highest level of knowledge about pharmacovigilance, followed by physicians and other professionals. It is possible that this professional group identifies with issues regarding drug safety and receives training from DIGEMID, which is responsible for conducting the Peruvian Pharmacovigilance System. Outside the context of the pandemic, in Peru, the training of pharmacists is focused on pharmacotherapeutic follow-up, an activity that includes detection and reporting of ADRs. In addition, national regulations and the labor law require pharmacist participation in the access and rational use of medicines 12 and in the Peruvian Pharmacovigilance and Technovigilance System. The results of studies carried out in other parts of the world are controversial when it comes to the professionals with the greatest knowledge of pharmacovigilance; some studies identify the pharmacist 13 , 14 and others, the physician 15 , 16 , 17.

Positive attitudes towards pharmacovigilance were found in 81.2% of the participants. It is important to note that more than 90% considered that reporting ADRs of drugs used in COVID-19 benefits the patient. Therefore, positive attitudes are important to assess the predisposition of health professionals regarding the report ADRs of drugs without sufficient scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. However, we identified that 15% considered that ADR reporting may have legal consequences, which could affect the motivation for reporting. Although no studies that evaluate the attitudes of professionals to report ADRs outside the context of COVID-19 were found, the proportions we obtained coincide with those found in other studies on the positive attitudes of professionals towards the implementation of pharmacovigilance, being 92% in Pakistan 16 and 82.2% in India 18.

In April and May 2020, MINSA established the need for monitoring and reporting adverse reactions to drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and ivermectin, which are used against COVID-19 19 , 20. Our analysis evidenced that the majority of respondents had an inadequate level of pharmacovigilance practices in the context of COVID-19; only 10% reported at least one ADR to “off-label” drug treatment; 14% participated in the implementation of intensive pharmacovigilance in EsSalud; and less than half reviewed updates on the safety of “potential” drug treatments for COVID-19. Lack of time to report ADRs, because of the high demand for medical care due to the pandemic, could explain the limited pharmacovigilance practice in the institution. We also found that a higher proportion of hospital professionals had a high level of pharmacovigilance practices, possibly because they receive more training from pharmacovigilance committees, which by national regulations only exist in centers with inpatient care.

The main limitation of this study is that it was a secondary analysis of a database that included data collected by a survey previously carried out by the CRI-EsSalud; therefore, we analyzed the information assuming that it had been adequately registered. Besides, the database did not have epidemiologically important variables such as age, length of professional experience, among others. Furthermore, it is not clear how the survey was validated, and we can’t confirm that the responses were not biased by a relationship of authority between the surveyors and the respondents. In addition, the measurement of results may be biased, since the lack of defined intervals can have little discriminatory capacity. Likewise, according to the responses, it is possible that some questions do not have enough alternatives, which could lead to a bias due to forced selection. It should be noted that our results cannot be extrapolated to all EsSalud personnel, much less to Peruvian health professionals. Despite this, our study provided important information on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a group of EsSalud health professionals -of voluntary participation- on pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19.

In conclusion, although most of the participating health professionals showed a high level of knowledge and positive attitudes, they had an inadequate level of pharmacovigilance practices in the context of COVID-19. Pharmacovigilance is of vital importance during the current pandemic due to the high demand for pharmaceuticals without sufficient scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. Strategies should be implemented to strengthen knowledge and practices regarding pharmacovigilance among health professionals, in order to ensure patient safety.


We thank Dr. Héctor Miguel Garavito Farro (specialist in Public Health) for reviewing this manuscript.


. Farmacovigilancia - OPS/OMS | Organización Panamericana de la Salud [Internet]. [citado 29 de marzo de 2022]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

. Dirección General de Medicamentos, Insumos y Drogas. Directiva que regula el Sistema de Farmacovigilancia y Tecnovigilancia de EsSalud, MINSA; 2016 [citado el 26 de octubre de 2021]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

. Syed A, Azhar S, Raza MM, Saeed H, Jamshed SQ. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and barriers towards pharmacovigilance among physicians and pharmacists of Abbottabad, Pakistan. Pharmacy. 2018;6(2):29. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy6020029. [ Links ]

. Ali MD, Hassan YA, Ahmad A, Alaqel O, Al-Harbi H, Al-Suhaimi NM. Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes Toward Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting Process Among Health Care Providers in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Curr Drug Saf. 2018;13(1):21-25. doi: 10.2174/1574886313666171218123802. [ Links ]

. Al Rabayah AA, Hanoun EM, Rumman RH. Assessing knowledge, attitude, and practices of health-care providers toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting at a comprehensive cancer center in Jordan. Perspect Clin Res. 2019;10(3):115. doi: 10.4103/picr.PICR_4_18. [ Links ]

. Alshammari TM, Alamri KK, Ghawa YA, Alohali NF, Abualkol SA, Aljadhey HS. Knowledge and attitude of health-care professionals in hospitals towards pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015;37(6):1104-10. doi: 10.1007/s11096-015-0165-5. [ Links ]

. Ergün Y, Ergün TB, Toker E, Ünal E, Akben M. Knowledge attitude and practice of Turkish health professionals towards pharmacovigilance in a university hospital. Int Health. 2019;11(3):177-84. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihy073. [ Links ]

. Chandler RE, McCarthy D, Delumeau J-C, Harrison-Woolrych M. The role of pharmacovigilance and ISoP during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Drug Saf. 2020;1-2. doi: 10.1007/s40264-020-00941-4. [ Links ]

. Tuccori M, Convertino I, Ferraro S, Cappello E, Valdiserra G, Focosi D, et al. The Impact of the COVID-19 "Infodemic" on drug-utilization behaviors: implications for pharmacovigilance. Drug Saf. 2020;43(8):699-709. doi: 10.1007/s40264-020-00965-w. [ Links ]

. Desai MK. Pharmacovigilance and assessment of drug safety reports during COVID 19. Perspect Clin Res. 2020;11(3):128-31. doi: 10.4103/picr.PICR_171_20. [ Links ]

. Ministerio de Salud. Resolución Ministerial 593-2016-MINSA [Internet]. Lima: Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. MINSA; 2020 [citado 29 de marzo de 2022]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

. Ley del Trabajo del Químico Farmacéutico del Perú, Ley 28173 [Internet]. Colegio Químico Farmacéutico del Perú 2006. Disponible en: [ Links ]

. Shanko H, Abdela J. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care professionals toward adverse drug reaction reporting in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study: Hosp Pharm. Hosp Pharm. 2018;53(3):177-187. doi: 10.1177/0018578717737430. [ Links ]

. Fadare JO, Enwere OO, Afolabi AO, Chedi B, Musa A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting among Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Centre in Northern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res.2011;10(3):235-242. doi: 10.4314/tjpr.v10i3.4. [ Links ]

. Gidey K, Seifu M, Hailu BY, Asgedom SW, Niriayo YL. Healthcare professionals'knowledge, attitude and practice of adverse drug reactions reporting in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2020;10(2):e034553. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034553. [ Links ]

. Nisa ZU, Zafar A, Sher F. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among healthcare professionals in secondary and tertiary hospitals in the capital of Pakistan. Saudi Pharm J. 2018;26(4):453-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.02.014. [ Links ]

. Gurmesa LT, Dedefo MG. Factors Affecting Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting of Healthcare Professionals and Their Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards ADR Reporting in Nekemte Town, West Ethiopia. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:5728462. doi: 10.1155/2016/5728462. [ Links ]

. Gupta SK, Nayak RP, Shivaranjani R, Vidyarthi SK. A questionnaire study on the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of pharmacovigilance among the healthcare professionals in a teaching hospital in South India. Perspect Clin Res. 2015;6(1):45-52. doi: 10.4103/2229-3485.148816. [ Links ]

. Ministerio de Salud. Resolución Ministerial 193-2020-MINSA [Internet]. Lima: Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. MINSA; 2020 [citado 20 de mayo de 2021]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

. Ministerio de Salud. Resolución Ministerial 270-2020-MINSA [Internet]. Lima: Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. MINSA; 2020 [citado 7 de mayo de 2021]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

Funding: This study was funded by the Health Technology Assessment and Research Institute (IETSI), EsSalud, Peru.

Cite as: Rodríguez-Tanta LY, Ale-Mauricio DA, Saromo-Meléndez V, Lazarte-Ramos A, Gálvez-Dávila E, Pecho-Arias G, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 in health professionals of the Peruvian social insurance. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2022;39(1):91-7. doi:

Received: January 19, 2022; Accepted: March 30, 2022

Correspondence: Lisbeth Yesenia Rodríguez Tanta

Authorship contribution:

All authors participated in this study. LYRT and DAM were in charge of analyzing the database and wrote the first version of the article. All authors participated in the discussion of the studies found. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript and assume responsibility for the content of the article.

Conflicts of interest:

The authors declare that they have no financial or non-financial conflicts of interest related to the subjects described in this document.

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons