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Revista Peruana de Biología

On-line version ISSN 1727-9933

Rev. peru biol. vol.28 no.spe Lima Dec. 2021  Epub Dec 30, 2021 

Trabajos originales

Checklist of freshwater fishes from Loreto, Peru

Lista de especies de peces de agua dulce de Loreto, Perú

1Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Museo de Historia Natural, Departamento de Ictiología, Av Arenales 1256, 15072, Lima, Perú.

2Laboratório de Sistemática de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Ipiranga 6681, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

3Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal Av Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bloco IV, Prédio 43433, Campus do Vale, Bairro Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.


This study presents an extensive review of published and unpublished occurrence records of fish species in the Loreto department. Located in the northeast of the country, Loreto is the most geographically extensive region in the Peruvian territory. Despite the increase in fish collections in Loreto in recent years, the ichthyofauna of this department needs to be more documented. Based on a database of scientific collections and bibliographic information, an updated checklist of the freshwater fishes from Loreto is presented. The results reveal a rich and diversified ichthyofauna, with 873 species distributed in 331 genera, 50 families and 15 orders. The main groups are Characiformes (42.6%), Siluriformes (34.8%), Gymnotiformes (8.6%) and Cichliformes (7.4%). Part of the ichthyofauna has restricted distribution for Loreto (4.7%). In addition, 9.0% of species from Loreto are used in fisheries. Meanwhile, 219 species (25%) were categorized according to the IUCN criteria where only six species (0.7%) are currently considered threatened species (CR, EN or VU). The results presented in this work indicate that this department needs more studies to know the biodiversity of fish, likewise, the information presented constitutes a contribution to the knowledge of fish diversity that would support environmental management actions and decision-making aimed at conserving one of the most diverse departments of Peru.

Keywords: Amazon basin; ichthyofauna; Marañón River; species inventory; Ucayali River


Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los registros de especies de peces, publicados y no publicados, del departamento de Loreto. Localizado al noreste del país, Loreto es el departamento más extenso del territorio peruano. A pesar del incremento en el número de las colectas de peces en Loreto en años recientes, la ictiofauna de este departamento necesita ser más documentada. Sustentado en los registros en bases de datos de colecciones científicas e información bibliográfica, se presenta una actualización de la lista de peces de agua dulce de Loreto. Los resultados revelaron una ictiofauna rica y diversificada, con 873 especies, distribuidas en 331 géneros, 50 familias y 15 órdenes. Los principales taxones fueron Characiformes (42.6%), Siluriformes (34.8%), Gymnotiformes (8.6%) y Cichliformes (7.4%). Parte de la ictiofauna tiene distribución restricta para Loreto (4.7%). Además, 9.0% de las especies son usadas en pesquerías de Loreto. Mientras tanto, 219 (25%) especies fueron categorizadas de acuerdo con los criterios de la IUCN, donde sólo seis especies (0.7%) son consideradas actualmente especies amenazadas (CR, EN o VU). Los resultados presentados en este trabajo señalan que este departamento necesita más estudios para conocer la biodiversidad de peces, así mismo, la información presentada constituye un aporte al conocimiento de la biodiversidad íctica que respaldarían las acciones de gestión ambiental y toma de decisiones destinados a conservar uno de los departamentos más diversos del Perú.

Palabras claves: Cuenca del Amazonas; ictiofauna; río Marañón; inventario de especies; río Ucayali


The Amazon drainage is the largest basin in the world and the major component of the Neotropical region. It includes a vast area of 7.3 million km2, crosses South America from the eastern Andes Mountains to the Atlantic coast crossing the shields of Brazil and Guyana (Venticinque et al. 2016, Leite & Rogers 2013). Besides its vastness in area, the Amazon basin possesses distinct physiognomies formed by geological backgrounds, diversity of rivers and soils (Dagosta & de Pinna 2018); and overall warm and humid Amazonian climate (Leite & Rogers 2013). In turn, these factors are associated with an enormous diversity of flora and fauna, comprising the richest ecosystem on the planet (Dagosta & de Pinna 2019).

The freshwater fish diversity of South America encompasses 5160 species; however, despite already being the most diverse freshwater ichthyofauna, estimates point to actual diversity between 8000 - 9000 species (Reis et al. 2016). The Amazon basin harbors the highest fish diversity in the world with 2406 described species (Jézéquel et al. 2020). Several efforts have been made to describe species and update lists of species by countries (Ortega & Vari 1986, Maldonado et al. 2008, Matamorros et al. 2009, Ortega et al. 2012, Mol et al. 2012, Le Bail et al. 2012, Barriga 2012, Angulo et al. 2013, Koerber & Litz 2014, Sarmiento et al. 2014, Mirande & Koerber 2015, Koerber et al. 2017, DoNascimiento et al. 2017) basins (Lasso et al. 2016, Ohara et al. 2017, Beltrão et al. 2019), regions (Jimenez-Prado et al. 2015, Van Der Sleen & Albert 2017, Dagosta & de Pinna 2019), and states (Bertaco et al. 2016, Dos Reis et al. 2020, Teixeira el al. 2020) along the Neotropical region.

The last checklist of freshwater native fishes from Peru registered 1064 species (Ortega et al. 2012), but with additions of new species, new records and taxonomic revisions, this diversity reached 1141 species (MINAM 2019). Peru is made up of 24 departments and a constitutional province (Callao); however, fish diversity studies were never carried out by department and the main fish checklists were directed to sub-basins, (Ortega et al. 2006, Rengifo 2007, Palacios et al. 2008, Carvalho et al. 2009, Correa & Ortega 2010, Carvalho et al. 2011, Quezada et al. 2017, Armas et al. 2021).

Important ichthyological material deposited in peruvian fish collections comes from fieldwork associated to their environmental impact studies requested by law, to evaluate their potential impacts. In Loreto, some examples of these kind of activities are the exploration, exploitation, processing, and transportation of hydrocarbons (oil, gas) and Hidrovia projects. On the other hand, Rapid Biological Inventories conducted by the Field Museum during last 20 years have made possible to register the diversity from several areas in Loreto, particularly the fishes (Table 1).

Table 1 Previous fish inventories in different basins in Loreto. NP=National Park, NR=National Reserve, RAC=Regional area of conservation. 

Inventories Total species Possible new species Conservation status Reference
Biabo Cordillera Azul 93 10 NP de Rham, Hidalgo & Ortega, 2001
Yavarí 240 10 Ortega, Hidalgo & Bértiz, 2003
Ampiyacu, Apayacu, Yaguas, Medio Putumayo 207 5 RAC Hidalgo & Olivera, 2004
Matsés 177 9 NR Hidalgo & Velásquez, 2006
Sierra del Divisor 109 14 NP Hidalgo & Pezzi, 2006
Nanay-Mazán-Arabela 154 12 RAC Hidalgo & Willink, 2007
Cuyabeno-Güeppí 184 3 NP Hidalgo & Rivadeneira, 2008
Maijuna 132 7 RAC Hidalgo & Sipión, 2010
Yaguas-Cotuhé 337 7 NP Hidalgo & Ortega-Lara, 2011
Cerros de Kampankis 60 6 Quispe & Hidalgo, 2012
Ere-Campuya-Algodón 210 4 Maldonado-Ocampo, Quispe & Hidalgo, 2013
Cordillera Escalera 30 2 Hidalgo & Aldea-Guevara, 2014
Tapiche-Blanco 180 4 Corahua, Aldea-Guevara & Hidalgo 2015
Medio Putumayo-Algodón 232 12 Hidalgo & Maldonado-Ocampo, 2016
Bajo Putumayo-Yaguas-Cotuhé 150 2   Faustino-Fuster, Patarroyo & de Souza, 2021

Extensive biodiversity in Loreto is not limited to freshwater systems. Pitman et al. (2013) have done the first biodiversity compilation including plants and terrestrial vertebrates. As a result, Loreto has probably the highest species richness among Peruvian Departments, with 7959 plant species, 914 bird species, 267 mammal species, 216 amphibian species and 170 reptile species. Of these, the number of threatened species ranges between 1.7% (plants) to 7.5% (mammals) depending on the groups, and the number of endemics between 0.2% (birds) and 5.5% (amphibian).

In contrast, the knowledge of fish diversity from Loreto is far from complete. By this point, it is an important task to be done. Accordingly, this study aims to provide the first checklist of freshwater fishes recorded in Loreto to improve scientific information for guiding policy and management decisions for conservation and fishery management.

Material and methods

Study area. - Loreto is the largest department in Peru located northeast of the country, representing 28% of the Peruvian territory with an area of 368 851, 950 km2 (CONAM 2005). Its borders are with Ecuador in the northwest, with Colombia in the northeast, Brazil in the east, Amazonas and San Martin departments in the west, and the Ucayali department in the south (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 Loreto department showing main tributaries of the Amazon basin, sampling localities (black dots) taken from available databases. 

Loreto is part of the Amazon rainforest, belonging to the Amazon Lowland ecoregion (Abell et al. 2008) with remnants of the Andes in the west border, as well as the Cerros del Kampankins (Pitman et al. 2012), Cordillera Escalera (Pitman et al. 2014) and Cordillera Azul (Alverson et al. 2000). In the heart of the department, the Amazon River is formed by the confluence of Marañón and Ucayali rivers, close to Nauta City.

The Marañón River is born in the Andes, in the Raura snow peak in Pasco Department about more than 5800 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.). According to the elevation gradient, the Marañón River can be split into the upper and lower basin. The upper Marañón River flows from the Raura snow peak to the Manseriche Pongo at 190 m a.s.l., and from approximately the middle of this geomorphological zone this river flows crossing the Loreto region. The lower Marañón River comprises Manseriche Pongo as it joins with Ucayali River in Nauta City. The lower Marañón River flows from west to east in the Amazonian lowlands in Loreto, presenting a meandering channel, covered by sand and sparse rocks. During the flood season, it floods extensive areas frequently abandoning its old channel, opening a new one. The abandoned channels form the “cochas” lagoons or ox bow lakes, which - due to the shape they present - are called horseshoe lakes. The main tributaries of the lower Marañón River are Morona, Pastaza, Tigre, and Huallaga rivers (MINAM 2011).

The Ucayali River headwater is in the Eastern Andes, in the Mismi snow peak 5597 m a.s.l. in Arequipa, but is formally named by the junction of Urubamba and Tambo rivers, in the south of Ucayali Department. It can be separated into the upper and lower basin as well. The Upper Ucayali River flows from the Mismi snow peak to confluence between Ucayali and Pachitea rivers. The Lower Ucayali River goes from Pachitea River mouth to the confluence with Marañón River. The lower Ucayali River flows from south to north in Loreto; it also has meandering course forming “cochas” or lagoons and islands which constantly change shape and size. The tributaries of the lower Ucayali River are Aguaytia, Pisqui, Cushabatay and Tapiche rivers (MINAM 2011).

It is worth mentioning that both Lower Marañón and Ucayali rivers are navigable during the year. Once the Peruvian Amazon River is formed, it receives the contribution of tributaries like Nanay, Itaya, Napo, Ampiyacu-Apayacu, and Yavarí rivers (Peru); and Putumayo River (Colombia).

Data collection. - This study was based on bibliographic information. The record of species were obtained from collection data available on iDigBio (, speciesLink ( and mainly from Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (MUSM) database from fishes sampled in Loreto department.

The databases formed belongs to scientific collection, namely Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (ANSP), California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS), Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (FMNH), Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (MCP), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris (MNHN), Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge (MCZ), Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (MUSM), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZUSP), University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville (UF), University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor (UMMZ), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas "Adão José Cardoso", Campinas (ZUEC). Doubtful information, like no coordinates localities or unlikely coordinates, were discarded. Additionally, information was also compiled from available literature including species descriptions, taxonomic revision, and fish inventories and checklist (Appendix 1). This compilation covers 262 years of ichthyological information (Fig. 2).

Figure 2 Cumulative curve of fish species described from Loreto department between 1758 - 2020, based on bibliographic information. 

The taxonomic nomenclature for order and families follows Betancur et al. (2017); valid names were confirmed following Eschmeyer Catalog of Fishes (Fricke et al. 2021). The use of aff. and cf. were avoided to try to get a precise number of species; in the same way, the use of “sp.” was avoided except by few genera with no more species to represent. Nonnative species recorded from the natural environment in the Loreto department, with or without vouchers in fish collections were considered in a separate list and commented on in the discussion. Commercial species were taken from available information (García-Davila et al. 2018).

The conservation status of each species was taken from the last assessment following the IUCN criteria in 2014 available in


Taxonomic composition. - Of the total information analysed, 21527 batches deposited in 10 scientific collections were registered. This annotated checklist reveals that the ichthyofauna in Loreto is composed of 873 valid species (Appendix 2), which included 38 new species described in the last eight years (Ortega et al. 2012) and taxonomic changes like transfers, synonyms, and distribution range extensions.

The species are distributed in 15 orders, 50 families and 331 genera (Table 2). Most of the ichthyofauna belongs to Otophysi (Cypriniformes, Characiformes, Silurformes, and Gymnotiformes) representing 86.0% (750 species), with Characiformes being the most diverse order (372, species, 42.6%), followed by Siluriformes (304, species, 34.8%), and Gymnotiformes (75, species, 8.6%); and with addition of Cichliformes (65, species, 7.4%). The remaining 11 orders were represented by 57 species (6.5%) (Fig. 3A).

Table 2 Number of family, genera, and species for each order of fishes registered in Loreto. 

Order Family Genera Species
Myliobatiformes 1 3 5
Lepidosireniformes 1 1 1
Osteoglossiformes 2 2 2
Clupeiformes 2 7 15
Characiformes 19 122 372
Gymnotiformes 5 25 75
Siluriformes 11 133 304
Batrachoidiformes 1 1 1
Cyprinodontiformes 1 3 11
Beloniformes 1 3 6
Synbranchiformes 1 1 3
Perciformes 2 4 8
Cichliformes 1 22 64
Carangiformes 1 3 5
Tetraodontiformes 1 1 1
Total 50 331 873

Figure 3 Richest taxa of fishes in number of species. A, orders; B, families; C, genera. 

In terms of family richness, Characidae is the richest with 178 species (20.4%) followed by Loricariidae with 89 species (10.2%), Cichlidae with 64 species (7.3%), Pimelodidae with 41 species (4.7%), Callichthyidae and Doradidae with 40 each (4.6%) (Fig. 3B).

The most species-rich genera are found in Characidae; among them are Creagrutus, Hemigrammus, Hyphessobrycon, Moenkhausia. Among Loricariidae Hypostomus with 9 species, also Corydoras concentrated the most species in Callichthyidae with 33 of 40 species. In the same way, Apistogramma and Crenicichla together sum half of Cichlidae with 31 of 66 species. In Gymnotiformes, Brachyhypopomus and Gymnotus are represented by 21 species combined (Fig. 3C).

New species records. - New registers were added compared to the last list due recent taxonomic revisions, as Copella nattereri (Steindachner 1876), Astyanax symmetricus Eigenmann 1908, Jupiaba anterior (Eigenmann 1908), Knodus septentrionalis Géry 1972, Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908, Trachelyopterus porosus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888), Tridensimilis brevis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889), Hypoptopoma brevirostratum Aquino & Schaefer 2010.

Others registers omitted in the last lists were added as, Pellona altamazonica Cope 1872, Pyrrhulina melanostomus (Cope 1870), Mylossoma albiscopum (Cope 1872), Knodus borki Zarske 2008, Spinipterus acsi Akama & Ferraris 2011, Aphanotorulus phrixosoma (Fowler 1940), Limatulichthys petleyi (Fowler 1940), Moema hellneri Costa 2003, Moema schleseri Costa 2003, Apistogramma amoena (Cope 1872).

Species with restricted distribution. - A total of 41 species (4.7%) has restricted distribution for Loreto. Most of them are cichlids, belonging to Apistogramma, followed by the rivulids: Moema and Anablepsoides (Fig. 4, Appendix 2).

Figure 4 Freshwater fish species in Peru. Species distributed in other departments (white); species distributed in Loreto (gray) and species endemic from Loreto (black). 

Commercially important species. - Large species that can surpass 1 m of standard length (SL), includes Arapaimidae, Osteoglossidae and mainly Pimelodidae (Brachyplatystoma, Pseudoplatystoma, Zungaro) which are known as migratory species. Some medium body-size species up to 30 cm belongs to Anostomidae (Leporinus, Megaleporinus), Auchenipteridae (Auchenipterus, Tetranematichthys), Bryconidae (Brycon, Salminus), Curimatidae (Potamorhina), Cynodontidae (Hydrolycus, Rhaphiodon), Loricariidae (Panaque, Pterygoplichthys), etc. Most of the communities harbor small species; that is, individuals with SL up to 10 cm, represented by 366 species (41%). Those species belong to Characidae (Bryconamericus, Moenkhausia), Iguanodectidae (Bryconops), Heptapteridae (Mastiglanis), Loricariidae (Aphanotorulus), Gymnotidae (Gymnotus), etc. Also, species up to 26 mm SL known as miniature species are present in this list, represented in Engraulidae (Amazonsprattus scintilla), Characidae (Axelrodia stigmatias, Priocharax pygmaeus, Tyttobrycon hamatus, Xenurobrycon heterodon), Crenuchidae (Odontocharacidium aphanes), Callichthyidae (Corydoras pygmaeus), Doradidae (Physopyxis ananas), Pseudopimelodidae (Microglanis zonatus), Trichomycteridae (Tridentopsis pearsoni), etc.

In terms of commercial importance, small and medium species are used for aquarists (Apistogramma, Corydoras, Hemigrammus, etc.); medium and large-sized species are for human consumption (Pseudoplatystoma, Prochilodus, Potamorrhina, etc.) (Appendix 2).

Non-native species. - Exotic species are reported. Coptodon rendalli and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia), the livebearers Poecilia and Gambusia affinis and Trichopodus trichopterus are represented in collections (Table 3).

Table 3 Non-native species introduced in Loreto. 

Order / Family Species IUCN
Cyprininae Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758 VU
Danionidae Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822) LC
Poeciliidae Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853) LC
Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) LC
    Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859  
Cichlidae Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger 1897) LC
Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) LC
  Osphronemidae Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas 1770) LC

Threatened species. - Currently, a total of 217 species (24.9%) are categorized following the IUCN criteria (Appendix 2). Only six species (0.7%) are considered threatened species (“Critical Endangered” (CR), “Endangered” (EN) and “Vulnerable” (VU)). Additionally, two species were considered “Near Threatened” (NT) and 36 species as “Data Deficient” (DD). Finally, 173 species are considered as “Least Concern” (LC).


Taxonomic composition. - The diversity of fishes in Loreto is high, corresponding to 76.4% (873 spp.) of species known to occur in Peru (1141 spp.; MINAM 2019). Fifteen years ago, there were 597 recorded species (CONAM 2005), and in the last checklist 724 species were reported. This represents an increase of 20%. This value is incredibly high; over 76.4% of the species are recorded for only 28.7% (368.851 km²) of the Peruvian territory (1 285 000 km²). Compared to terrestrial vertebrates (Pitman et al 2013), fishes of Loreto have the highest percentage of IUCN species (25.1% vs. 19% or less) and the highest percentage of the total species reported for Peru (76.4% vs. 49.2% or less). Furthermore, fishes of Loreto have the second highest number of endemics species (4.9%) following amphibia (5.6%). This clearly shows the relevance of fish diversity in this region.

As in other lists or inventories in the Neotropical region, the most species-rich orders belong to Otophysi representing around 80% of species in total. In the same way, the most species-rich families follow the typical pattern for Amazonia fish composition: dominated for Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae, Doradidae and Callichthyidae (Beltrão et al. 2019, Dagosta & de Pinna 2019).

New species records. - Although the list provided here considers species-level names only, there were some genera that could represent new species (Scorpiodoras, Phenacorhamdia, Astroblepus), even some of them are in the description process. Also, the species Rhamdia cf. quelen and Trichomycterus cf. rivulatus present some doubts related with its taxonomic status and need to be reviewed in detail. Besides that, Astroblepus, Chaetostoma and Trichomycterus are genera with typical distribution along an elevational gradient in the Andes, collected in the lowest slopes of Andes belonging to Loreto. Overall, those genera are diverse and endemic for sub basins; they can represent potential new species.

The Field Museum Rapid Biological Inventories have contributed to the knowledge of fishes from Loreto due to most of them being carried out in places with difficult access (Table 1). A total of 45 potential new species is estimated from 15 inventories in Loreto. Of these, only 11% have been described (Panaque schaeferi, Hypostomus fonchii, Corydoras ortegai, Hemibrycon divisoriensis, Mastiglanis yaguas and Cetopsorhamdia hidalgoi). This demonstrates there still is more effort to make in taxonomic and systematic studies.

Species with restricted distribution. - Four point seven percent of the species (4.7%, 41 spp. of 873 spp.) have restricted distribution in Loreto (Appendix 2). Most available information of fish endemicity is expressed by basin, for instance, Marañón and Ucayali basins have high levels of endemism with 25% and 16% respectively (Dagosta & de Pinna 2019). For this reason, our results are not comparable with previous studies because they are regional. However, we believe that the lower portion of each basin can contribute to the richness of Piedmont species which are different from lowland species.

Commercially important species. - Fishing is one of the main economic activities in Peruvian Amazon; 79 species are part of fisheries resources (García-Dávila et al. 2018), representing 9% of the total species from Loreto. Thus, most species are not used for fisheries or any commercial purposes (91%). As was mentioned before, there is an enormous diversity of fishes in terms of size, body shape, colour pattern, etc., which are of interest of researchers with different focuses (systematic, taxonomy, ecology, genetic, phylogeny, etc.). However, the Peruvian government considers all freshwater fishes as fisheries or hydro-biological resources, which are under the supervision of the Ministry of Production, rather than being considered as fauna under the management of the Ministry of the Environment. This misconception of fisheries resources is problematic for research (i.e.: permission for collecting fishes, permission for exportation, of individuals as well DNA analysis) and conservation (IUCN categorization). Several countries in the Neotropical region manage freshwater fishes as fauna that allow them to make research about checklists by basin or departments, conservation status and red list (IUCN), scientific expeditions, etc. This kind of management politics can improve the knowledge and conservation of freshwater fish diversity in Peru.

Finally, the present study can contribute to the management of fisheries to get precise catchment for species as well as for fauna since it contains an update of the fish list for Loreto.

Non-native species. - Exotic fishes have been introduced into natural habitats in Peru for different purposes since 1930s. For example, the tilapia (Coptodon rendalli) was introduced repeatedly into coastal and central Amazon basin to increase food availability to local community. Livebearers (Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia affinis) were introduced to control malaria insects during the 1950s (Ortega et al. 2007). Additionally, other introductions, such as Cyprinus carpio, Oreochromis niloticus and Poecilia reticulata also were registered for lower Huallaga River (Ortega et al. 2007).

Trichopodus trichopterus can be found around Iquitos streams and recently was collected next to Quistocoha by H. Sánchez (Pers. Comm. 2019). Many decades ago (1980-1990), there was some ornamental activity around this group from Moronacocha, a lagoon very close to the city and connected to Nanay River. In addition, Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) known as zebra fish, were registered in a consulting work in a lentic body of water between Nauta and Iquitos (Urku & Brirell 2016). The introduction of exotic species into natural habitats caused several problems such as predation, competition for resources and for niches. The species reported herein are adapted to warm water, and that facilitated their dispersion (Ortega et al. 2012, Ortega et al. 2007). Some of these species do not have vouchers in collections but as mentioned before, they are already in natural habitats (Table 3) and it is necessary to take some control actions to minimize the effects.

Incidental presence of shark has been recorded in Iquitos. Carcharhinus leucas was registered the first time in 1952 by Myers who identified a single specimen by a photo (Gausmann 2018, unpublished report). Although the bull shark has been registered in several rivers in different continents, the farthest penetration and longest movement into freshwater is provided for the Amazon River, more than 5000 km away from the mouth of the river at the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. The distribution of this species is limited by water temperature, not only in coastal, but even in freshwater systems (Castro 2010).

Gaps of information. - Even though, almost all the sub-basins of the department have been studied, there still are some gaps to fill. For instance, the middle Napo River, some tributaries of Marañón River, Yavarí River, and some tributaries between Huallaga River and Ucayali River (Fig. 1). These areas should be prioritized for ichthyological surveys.

Conservation. - Several threats have been identified in Loreto derived from economic activities such as deforestation, illegal logging, artisanal fluvial gold mining, pollution, road constructions, hydroelectric dam and Hidrovia projects. All of these threats have affected the environment in the past but might especially affect aquatic habitats and their fish fauna in the future.

Although the time for the collections were limited, the information obtained in biological inventories was valuable. Not only to know the diversity in those places at the time, but also to know the conservation state of the area and the local communities that live there. It is important to mention that the most remarkable thing of those inventories was that they were taken as a baseline to propose national protected areas (NPA) where 53% of them led to the creation of an NPA in some category (Pitman et al. 2021) (Table 1).

It is worth mentioning that the last meeting of categorization of Peruvian fishes was focused on Andean fishes (IUCN, 2014). “Near threatened” and “Data deficient” indicate lack of information about distribution, natural history, size or density population and ecology of those species (Bertaco et al. 2016), hence encouraging more studies to be made on those species. Besides that, species considered as “Least concern” can give an appearance of the stability of the conservation status of those species; however, they need to be updated due new threats, which can appear. Overall, more efforts need to be made to complete the assessment of Peruvian fish species and particularly from the Loreto department.

Agradecimientos / Acknowledgments:

We are grateful to all researchers and ichthyologists who have contributed increase knowledge about the ichthyofauna in Loreto over the time. This work has been possible due to database available from different institutions/collections, Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (ANSP), California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS), Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (FMNH), Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (MCP), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris (MNHN), Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge (MCZ), Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (MUSM), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZUSP), University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville (UF), University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor (UMMZ), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas "Adão José Cardoso", Campinas (ZUEC).

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Fuentes de financiamiento / Funding: Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).

Aspectos éticos / legales; Ethics / legals: Authors declare that they did not violate or omit ethical or legal norms in this research.

Citación: Meza-Vargas V, Faustino-Fuster DR, Chuctaya J, Hidalgo M, Ortega Torres H. 2021.Checklist of freshwater fishes from Loreto, Peru. Revista peruana de biología 28(especial): e21911 (Diciembre 2021). doi:

Editor:Leonardo Romero

Appendix 1.

Literature sources for distributional data on Amazonian fishes from Loreto, Peru.

Appendix 2.

List of fish species of the department of Loreto. Columns are organized by Order, family, valid name, restricted distribution (RD) = x, commercial species (C) = * following Garcia-Dávila et al. (2018) and, IUCN categorization (LC=Least Concern, DD= Data Deficient, NT= Near Threatened, CR=Critically Endangered, EN=Endangered, VU=Vulnerable).

Order / Family Species RD C IUCN
Potamotrygonidae Plesiotrygon nana Carvalho & Ragno 2011
Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle 1841)
Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle 1841)
Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau 1855) LC
Potamotrygon tigrina Carvalho, Sabaj Pérez & Lovejoy 2011 EN
Lepidosirenidae Lepidosiren paradoxa Fitzinger 1837  
Arapaimidae Arapaima gigas (Schinz 1822) * DD
Osteoglossidae Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier 1829) *  
Engraulidae Amazonsprattus scintilla Roberts 1984 LC
Anchoviella alleni (Myers 1940) LC
Anchoviella carrikeri Fowler 1940 LC
Anchoviella guianensis (Eigenmann 1912) LC
Anchoviella hernanni Loeb, Varella & Menezes 2018 LC
Anchoviella jamesi (Jordan & Seale 1926) LC
Anchoviella juruasanga Loeb 2012 LC
Jurengraulis juruensis (Boulenger 1898) LC
Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868) LC
Pristigasteridae Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920) LC
Pellona altamazonica Cope 1872 x
Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847 * LC
Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837) * LC
Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829 LC
Pristigaster whiteheadi Menezes & de Pinna 2000 LC
Hemiodontidae Anodus elongatus Agassiz 1829 *
Bivibranchia fowleri (Steindachner 1908)
Hemiodus argenteus Pellegrin 1909
Hemiodus atranalis (Fowler 1940)
Hemiodus gracilis Günther 1864
Hemiodus microlepis Kner 1858 *
Hemiodus semitaeniatus Kner 1858
Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch 1794)
Parodontidae Parodon pongoensis (Allen 1942)
Curimatidae Curimata aspera Günther 1868
Curimata cisandina (Allen 1942)
Curimata knerii Steindachner 1876
Curimata roseni Vari 1989
Curimata vittata (Kner 1858) * LC
Curimatella alburnus (Müller & Troschel 1844)
Curimatella dorsalis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) *
Curimatella immaculata (Fernández-Yépez 1948)
Curimatella meyeri (Steindachner 1882) *
Curimatopsis macrolepis (Steindachner 1876)
Curimatopsis microlepis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889
Cyphocharax derhami Vari & Chang 2006 x LC
Cyphocharax festivus Vari 1992
Cyphocharax leucostictus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)
Cyphocharax nigripinnis Vari 1992
Cyphocharax notatus (Steindachner 1908)
Cyphocharax pantostictos Vari & Barriga Salazar 1990 LC
Cyphocharax plumbeus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)
Cyphocharax spiluropsis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)
Cyphocharax spilurus (Günther 1864)
Cyphocharax vexillapinnus Vari 1992
Potamorhina altamazonica (Cope 1878) *
Potamorhina latior (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Potamorhina pristigaster (Steindachner 1876)
Psectrogaster amazonica Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 *
Psectrogaster essequibensis (Günther 1864)
Psectrogaster rhomboides Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889
Psectrogaster rutiloides (Kner 1858) *
Steindachnerina bimaculata (Steindachner 1876)
Steindachnerina dobula (Günther 1868)
Steindachnerina guentheri (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)
Steindachnerina hypostoma (Boulenger 1887)
Steindachnerina leucisca (Günther 1868)
Steindachnerina planiventris Vari & Vari 1989
Steindachnerina quasimodoi Vari & Vari 1989
Prochilodontidae Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 *
Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841) *
Anostomidae Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868)
Anostomoides atrianalis Pellegrin 1909
Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758)
Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931)
Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890)
Laemolyta taeniata (Kner 1858)
Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850)
Leporinus agassizii Steindachner 1876 *
Leporinus amazonicus Santos & Zuanon 2008
Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos 1981
Leporinus bimaculatus Castelnau 1855
Leporinus desmotes Fowler 1914
Leporinus ecuadorensis Eigenmann & Henn 1916
Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794)
Leporinus friderici (Bloch 1794) *
Leporinus jamesi Garman 1929
Leporinus jatuncochi Ovchynnyk 1971
Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942
Leporinus multimaculatus Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski 2016
Leporinus niceforoi Fowler 1943 LC
Leporinus parae Eigenmann 1907
Leporinus striatus Kner 1858 LC
Leporinus y-ophorus Eigenmann 1922
Megaleporinus trifasciatus (Steindachner 1876) *
Pseudanos gracilis (Kner 1858)
Pseudanos trimaculatus (Kner 1858)
Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858
Rhytiodus microlepis Kner 1858 *
Schizodon fasciatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 *
Schizodon isognathus Kner 1858
Chilodontidae Caenotropus labyrinthicus (Kner 1858)
Chilodus punctatus Müller & Troschel 1844
Erythrinidae Erythrinus erythrinus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)
Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch 1794) * LC
Lebiasinidae Copeina guttata (Steindachner 1876)
Copeina osgoodi Eigenmann 1922
Copella callolepis (Regan 1912)
Copella nattereri (Steindachner 1876)
Copella vilmae Géry 1963
Nannostomus digrammus (Fowler 1913)
Nannostomus eques Steindachner 1876
Nannostomus marginatus Eigenmann 1909 CR
Nannostomus mortenthaleri Paepke & Arendt 2001 x CR
Nannostomus trifasciatus Steindachner 1876
Nannostomus unifasciatus Steindachner 1876
Pyrrhulina brevis Steindachner 1876
Pyrrhulina eleanorae Fowler 1940 LC
Pyrrhulina laeta (Cope 1872)
Pyrrhulina melanostomus (Cope 1870)
Pyrrhulina obermulleri Myers 1926 DD
Pyrrhulina semifasciata Steindachner 1876
Pyrrhulina spilota Weitzman 1960 LC
Pyrrhulina vittata Regan 1912
Pyrrhulina zigzag Zarske & Géry 1997
Gasteropelecidae Carnegiella marthae Myers 1927
Carnegiella myersi Fernández-Yépez 1950
Carnegiella schereri Fernández-Yépez 1950
Carnegiella strigata (Günther 1864)
Gasteropelecus sternicla (Linnaeus 1758)
Thoracocharax securis (De Filippi 1853)
Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner 1858)
Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella cuvieri (Spix & Agassiz 1829)
Boulengerella maculata (Valenciennes 1850)
Boulengerella xyrekes Vari 1995 LC
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus abbreviatus (Cope 1878)
Acestrorhynchus altus Menezes 1969
Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Bloch 1794)
Acestrorhynchus falcirostris (Cuvier 1819) *
Acestrorhynchus heterolepis (Cope 1878)
Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Lütken 1875)
Acestrorhynchus microlepis (Jardine 1841)
Acestrorhynchus minimus Menezes 1969
Acestrorhynchus nasutus Eigenmann 1912
Gnathocharax steindachneri Fowler 1913
Heterocharax macrolepis Eigenmann 1912
Cynodontidae Cynodon gibbus (Spix & Agassiz 1829)
Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier 1819) *
Hydrolycus tatauaia Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos 1999
Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829 *
Serrasalmidae Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1816) *
Metynnis argenteus Ahl 1923
Metynnis hypsauchen (Müller & Troschel 1844)
Metynnis lippincottianus (Cope 1870)
Metynnis luna Cope 1878
Metynnis maculatus (Kner 1858)
Myloplus levis (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907)
Myloplus rubripinnis (Müller & Troschel 1844) *
Myloplus schomburgkii (Jardine 1841) *
Myloplus torquatus (Kner 1858)
Mylossoma albiscopum (Cope 1872) *
Mylossoma aureum (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Mylossoma duriventre (Cuvier 1818)
Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier 1818) *
Pristobrycon striolatus (Steindachner 1908)
Pygocentrus nattereri Kner 1858 *
Serrasalmus eigenmanni Norman 1929
Serrasalmus elongatus Kner 1858 *
Serrasalmus humeralis Valenciennes 1850
Serrasalmus maculatus Kner 1858
Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus 1766) *
Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner 1858
Characidae Acestrocephalus boehlkei Menezes 1977 LC
Aphyocharax nattereri (Steindachner 1882)
Aphyocharax pusillus Günther 1868
Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842)
Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758)
Astyanax gandhiae Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018
Astyanax kennedyi Géry 1964 x DD
Astyanax longior (Cope 1878) DD
Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876)
Astyanax multidens (Pearson 1924)
Astyanax symmetricus Eigenmann 1908
Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry 1999 DD
Attonitus irisae Vari & Ortega 2000 LC
Axelrodia stigmatias (Fowler 1913)
Bario steindachneri (Eigenmann 1893)
Boehlkea fredcochui Géry 1966
Brachychalcinus copei (Steindachner 1882)
Brachychalcinus nummus Böhlke 1958 LC
Brachychalcinus orbicularis (Valenciennes 1850)
Bryconamericus bolivianus Pearson 1924 LC
Bryconamericus diaphanus (Cope 1878) LC
Bryconamericus pachacuti Eigenmann 1927 LC
Bryconamericus phoenicopterus (Cope 1872) LC
Bryconella pallidifrons (Fowler 1946)
Ceratobranchia binghami Eigenmann 1927 LC
Ceratobranchia obtusirostris Eigenmann 1914 LC
Charax caudimaculatus Lucena 1987
Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758)
Charax michaeli Lucena 1989
Charax niger Lucena 1989
Charax tectifer (Cope 1870) LC
Cheirodon luelingi Géry 1964 DD
Cheirodon ortegai Vari & Géry 1980 LC
Chrysobrycon eliasi Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta & Ortega 2011 DD
Chrysobrycon guahibo Vanegas-Ríos, Urbano-Bonilla & Azpelicueta 2015
Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke 1958) LC
Chrysobrycon myersi (Weitzman & Thomerson 1970) LC
Creagrutus amoenus Fowler 1943 LC
Creagrutus anary Fowler 1913
Creagrutus barrigai Vari & Harold 2001
Creagrutus changae Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Creagrutus cochui Géry 1964
Creagrutus flavescens Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Creagrutus gephyrus Böhlke & Saul 1975 LC
Creagrutus gracilis Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Creagrutus holmi Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Creagrutus kunturus Vari, Harold & Ortega 1995 LC
Creagrutus muelleri (Günther 1859) LC
Creagrutus occidaneus Vari & Harold 2001
Creagrutus ortegai Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Creagrutus peruanus (Steindachner 1876) LC
Creagrutus pila Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Creagrutus ungulus Vari & Harold 2001 LC
Ctenobrycon hauxwellianus (Cope 1870)
Cynopotamus amazonum (Günther 1868)
Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870)
Gephyrocharax major Myers 1929 LC
Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Boulenger 1895)
Gymnocorymbus thayeri Eigenmann 1908
Hemibrycon divisorensis Bertaco, Malabarba, Hidalgo & Ortega 2007 x DD
Hemibrycon huambonicus (Steindachner 1882) LC
Hemibrycon jabonero Schultz 1944
Hemibrycon jelskii (Steindachner 1876)
Hemibrycon polyodon (Günther 1864) LC
Hemigrammus aguaruna Lima, Correa & Ota 2016
Hemigrammus analis Durbin 1909
Hemigrammus bellottii (Steindachner 1882)
Hemigrammus geisleri Zarske & Géry 2007
Hemigrammus hyanuary Durbin 1918 LC
Hemigrammus levis Durbin 1908
Hemigrammus luelingi Géry 1964 LC
Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin 1918
Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis 1911
Hemigrammus megaceps Fowler 1945 DD
Hemigrammus microstomus Durbin 1918
Hemigrammus neptunus Zarske & Géry 2002
Hemigrammus newboldi (Fernández-Yépez 1949)
Hemigrammus ocellifer (Steindachner 1882)
Hemigrammus pulcher Ladiges 1938 LC
Hemigrammus rodwayi Durbin 1909
Hemigrammus schmardae (Steindachner 1882)
Hemigrammus unilineatus (Gill 1858)
Hemigrammus vorderwinkleri Géry 1963
Heterocharax macrolepis Eigenmann 1912
Hyphessobrycon agulha Fowler 1913
Hyphessobrycon bentosi Durbin 1908 LC
Hyphessobrycon chiribiquete García-Alzate, Lima, Taphorn, Mojica, Urbano-Bonilla & Teixeira 2020
Hyphessobrycon copelandi Durbin 1908
Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882)
Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma (Fowler 1943)
Hyphessobrycon frankei Zarske & Géry 1997 LC
Hyphessobrycon jackrobertsi Zarske 2014 x
Hyphessobrycon loretoensis Ladiges 1938 LC
Hyphessobrycon margitae Zarske 2016 x
Hyphessobrycon minimus Durbin 1909
Hyphessobrycon peruvianus Ladiges 1938 LC
Hyphessobrycon robustulus (Cope 1870) LC
Hyphessobrycon taphorni García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Ortega 2013
Hyphessobrycon tenuis Géry 1964 LC
Jupiaba anterior (Eigenmann 1908)
Jupiaba anteroides (Géry 1965)
Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann 1908)
Jupiaba scologaster (Weitzman & Vari 1986)
Jupiaba zonata (Eigenmann 1908)
Knodus borki Zarske 2008 x
Knodus breviceps (Eigenmann 1908)
Knodus gamma Géry 1972 LC
Knodus hypopterus (Fowler 1943) LC
Knodus megalops Myers 1929 LC
Knodus orteguasae (Fowler 1943)
Knodus savannensis Géry 1961
Knodus septentrionalis Géry 1972
Knodus smithi (Fowler 1913)
Leptagoniates steindachneri Boulenger 1887
Microschemobrycon geisleri Géry 1973
Microschemobrycon melanotus (Eigenmann 1912)
Moenkhausia agnesae Géry 1965
Moenkhausia atahualpiana (Fowler 1907) LC
Moenkhausia barbouri Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia ceros Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia chrysargyrea (Günther 1864)
Moenkhausia collettii (Steindachner 1882)
Moenkhausia comma Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia copei (Steindachner 1882)
Moenkhausia cotinho Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner 1858)
Moenkhausia grandisquamis (Müller & Troschel 1845)
Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia jamesi Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia latissima Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858)
Moenkhausia margitae Zarske & Géry 2001 NT
Moenkhausia megalops (Eigenmann 1907)
Moenkhausia melogramma Eigenmann 1908
Moenkhausia mikia Marinho & Langeani 2010
Moenkhausia naponis Böhlke 1958
Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther 1864)
Moenkhausia robertsi Géry 1964
Moenkhausia simulata (Eigenmann 1924) LC
Odontostilbe ecuadorensis Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006 LC
Odontostilbe euspilurus (Fowler 1945)
Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870
Othonocheirodus eigenmanni Myers 1927 LC
Oxybrycon parvulus Géry 1964
Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936)
Paragoniates alburnus Steindachner 1876
Parecbasis cyclolepis Eigenmann 1914
Petitella georgiae Géry & Boutière 1964
Phenacogaster capitulata Lucena & Malabarba 2010
Phenacogaster megalostictus Eigenmann 1909
Phenacogaster pectinata (Cope 1870)
Poptella compressa (Günther 1864)
Priocharax pygmaeus Weitzman & Vari 1987 LC
Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870)
Prodontocharax alleni Böhlke 1953
Prodontocharax melanotus Pearson 1924
Protocheirodon pi (Vari 1978)
Psalidodon fasciatus (Cuvier 1819)
Rhinobrycon negrensis Myers 1944
Roeboides affinis (Günther 1868) LC
Roeboides biserialis (Garman 1890)
Roeboides myersii Fowler 1932 *
Scopaeocharax atopodus (Böhlke 1958) LC
Scopaeocharax rhinodus (Böhlke 1958) LC
Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann 1915)
Serrapinnus piaba (Lütken 1875)
Stethaprion erythrops Cope 1870
Stichonodon insignis (Steindachner 1876)
Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier 1816
Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz 1829
Thayeria boehlkei Weitzman 1957
Thayeria obliqua Eigenmann 1908
Tyttobrycon hamatus Géry 1973 DD
Tyttocharax cochui (Ladiges 1949)
Tyttocharax madeirae Fowler 1913
Tyttocharax tambopatensis Weitzman & Ortega 1995 LC
Varicharax nigrolineatus Vanegas-Ríos, Faustino-Fuster, Meza-Vargas & Ortega 2020 x
Xenurobrycon heterodon Weitzman & Fink 1985 LC
Bryconidae Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz 1829) * LC
Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel 1844
Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes 1850)
Brycon melanopterus (Cope 1872) *
Brycon pesu Müller & Troschel 1845
Salminus affinis Steindachner 1880
Salminus hilarii Valenciennes 1850
Triportheidae Agoniates anchovia Eigenmann 1914
Clupeacharax anchoveoides Pearson 1924
Engraulisoma taeniatum Castro 1981
Triportheus albus Cope 1872
Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Triportheus auritus (Valenciennes 1850) *
Triportheus culter (Cope 1872)
Triportheus curtus (Garman 1890)
Triportheus pictus (Garman 1890)
Triportheus rotundatus (Jardine 1841) LC
Iguanodectidae Bryconops alburnoides Kner 1858
Bryconops caudomaculatus (Günther 1864)
Bryconops inpai Knöppel, Junk & Géry 1968
Bryconops melanurus (Bloch 1794)
Iguanodectes purusii (Steindachner 1908)
Iguanodectes spilurus (Günther 1864)
Piabucus dentatus (Koelreuter 1763)
Piabucus melanostoma Holmberg 1891
Chalceidae Chalceus epakros Zanata & Toledo-Piza 2004
Chalceus erythrurus (Cope 1870)
Chalceus macrolepidotus Cuvier 1818
Crenuchidae Ammocryptocharax elegans Weitzman & Kanazawa 1976
Ammocryptocharax minutus Buckup 1993
Characidium etheostoma Cope 1872
Characidium geryi (Zarske 1997)
Characidium pellucidum Eigenmann 1909
Characidium pteroides Eigenmann 1909 LC
Characidium purpuratum Steindachner 1882 LC
Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878
Characidium sterbai (Zarske 1997)
Characidium zebra Eigenmann 1909
Crenuchus spilurus Günther 1863
Elachocharax pulcher Myers 1927
Klausewitzia ritae Géry 1965
Melanocharacidium dispilomma Buckup 1993
Melanocharacidium pectorale Buckup 1993
Melanocharacidium rex (Böhlke 1958) LC
Odontocharacidium aphanes (Weitzman & Kanazawa 1977)  
Sternopygidae Distocyclus conirostris (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) LC
Eigenmannia humboldtii (Steindachner 1878)
Eigenmannia loretana Waltz & Albert 2018 x
Eigenmannia limbata (Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro 1903)
Eigenmannia macrops (Boulenger 1897)
Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes 1836)
Rhabdolichops caviceps (Fernández-Yépez 1968)
Rhabdolichops eastwardi Lundberg & Mago-Leccia 1986
Rhabdolichops electrogrammus Lundberg & Mago-Leccia 1986
Rhabdolichops troscheli (Kaup 1856)
Sternopygus macrurus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus balaenops (Cope 1878)
Adontosternarchus clarkae Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin 1985
Adontosternarchus nebulosus Lundberg & Cox Fernandes 2007
Adontosternarchus sachsi (Peters 1877)
Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus 1766)
Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau 1855)
Compsaraia samueli Albert & Crampton 2009
Melanosternarchus amaru Bernt, Crampton, Orfinger & Albert 2018
Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger 1898)
Parapteronotus hasemani (Ellis 1913)
Platyurosternarchus macrostoma (Günther 1870) LC
Porotergus duende de Santana & Crampton 2010
Porotergus gimbeli Ellis 1912
Sternarchella calhamazon Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Campos-da-Paz & Sullivan 2013
Sternarchella duccis (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996)
Sternarchella orthos Mago-Leccia 1994
Sternarchella raptor (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert 1996)
Sternarchella rex Evans, Crampton & Albert 2017
Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner 1868)
Sternarchella sima Starks 1913
Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner 1868)
Sternarchogiton porcinum Eigenmann & Allen 1942
Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner 1881)
Sternarchorhynchus cramptoni de Santana & Vari 2010
Sternarchorhynchus goeldii de Santana & Vari 2010
Sternarchorhynchus montanus de Santana & Vari 2010
Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (Steindachner 1868) LC
Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel 1849)
Sternarchorhynchus retzeri de Santana & Vari 2010
Sternarchorhynchus stewarti de Santana & Vari 2010 LC
Tenebrosternarchus preto (de Santana & Crampton 2007)
Rhamphichthyidae Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis 1912
Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni (Miranda Ribeiro 1920)
Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman 1962
Hypopygus ortegai de Santana & Crampton 2011 x LC
Rhamphichthys lineatus Castelnau 1855
Rhamphichthys pantherinus Castelnau 1855
Rhamphichthys rostratus (Linnaeus 1766)
Steatogenys duidae (LaMonte 1929)
Steatogenys elegans (Steindachner 1880) LC
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus beebei (Schultz 1944)
Brachyhypopomus benjamini Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy 2017 x
Brachyhypopomus bennetti Sullivan, Zuanon & Cox Fernandes 2013
Brachyhypopomus brevirostris (Steindachner 1868)
Brachyhypopomus flavipomus Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy 2017
Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy 2017
Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian & Bass 1990)
Brachyhypopomus regani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy 2017
Brachyhypopomus sullivani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy 2017
Brachyhypopomus verdii Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy 2017
Brachyhypopomus walteri Sullivan, Zuanon & Cox Fernandes 2013
Microsternarchus bilineatus Fernández-Yépez 1968
Gymnotidae Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus 1766) LC
Electrophorus multivalvulus Nakashima 1941
Gymnotus anguillaris Hoedeman 1962
Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 LC
Gymnotus chaviro Maxime & Albert 2009 LC
Gymnotus coatesi LaMonte 1935
Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005
Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton & Hagedorn 2003
Gymnotus jonasi Albert & Crampton 2001 LC
Gymnotus tigre Albert & Crampton 2003
Gymnotus ucamara Crampton, Lovejoy & Albert 2003 x
Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen & Albert 2005  
Doradidae Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758)
Acanthodoras spinosissimus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)
Agamyxis pectinifrons (Cope 1870)
Amblydoras affinis (Kner 1855)
Amblydoras monitor (Cope 1872) LC
Amblydoras nauticus (Cope 1874) LC
Anadoras grypus (Cope 1872) LC
Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875)
Hemidoras morrisi Eigenmann 1925
Hemidoras stenopeltis (Kner 1855)
Hemidoras stuebelii (Steindachner 1882)
Hypodoras forficulatus Eigenmann 1925 DD
Leptodoras acipenserinus (Günther 1868)
Leptodoras cataniai Sabaj Pérez 2005
Leptodoras copei (Fernández-Yépez 1968)
Leptodoras juruensis Boulenger 1898
Leptodoras myersi Böhlke 1970
Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840)
Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) *
Nemadoras elongatus (Boulenger 1898)
Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann 1925)
Nemadoras humeralis (Kner 1855)
Ossancora asterophysa Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011
Ossancora eigenmanni (Boulenger 1895)
Ossancora punctata (Kner 1855)
Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) *
Physopyxis ananas Sousa & Rapp Py-Daniel 2005
Physopyxis lyra Cope 1872
Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes 1840)
Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758)
Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) *
Rhinodoras boehlkei Glodek, Whitmire & Orcés V. 1976 LC
Rhynchodoras woodsi Glodek 1976
Scorpiodoras sp.
Tenellus cristinae (Sabaj Pérez, Arce H., Sousa & Birindelli 2014)
Tenellus ternetzi (Eigenmann 1925)
Tenellus trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898)
Trachydoras gepharti Sabaj Pérez & Arce H. 2017
Trachydoras nattereri (Steindachner 1881)
Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897)
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus inermis (Linnaeus 1766) *
Ageneiosus ucayalensis Castelnau 1855
Ageneiosus uranophthalmus Ribeiro & Rapp Py-Daniel 2010
Auchenipterichthys coracoideus (Eigenmann & Allen 1942) LC
Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Günther 1864)
Auchenipterichthys thoracatus (Kner 1858)
Auchenipterus ambyiacus Fowler 1915
Auchenipterus brachyurus (Cope 1878)
Auchenipterus fordicei Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888
Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Balroglanis macracanthus (Soares-Porto 2000)
Centromochlus existimatus Mees 1974
Centromochlus heckelii (De Filippi 1853)
Duringlanis altae (Fowler 1945)
Duringlanis perugiae (Steindachner 1882)
Epapterus dispilurus Cope 1878
Gelanoglanis travieso Rengifo & Lujan 2008 DD
Liosomadoras morrowi Fowler 1940 LC
Pseudepapterus hasemani (Steindachner 1915)
Spinipterus acsi Akama & Ferraris 2011
Spinipterus moijiri Rocha, Rossoni, Akama & Zuanon 2019
Tatia dunni (Fowler 1945)
Tatia gyrina (Eigenmann & Allen 1942)
Tatia intermedia (Steindachner 1877)
Tetranematichthys quadrifilis (Kner 1858)
Tetranematichthys wallacei Vari & Ferraris 2006
Trachelyichthys exilis Greenfield & Glodek 1977 x LC
Trachelyopterus galeatus (Linnaeus 1766) *
Trachelyopterus porosus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)
Trachycorystes trachycorystes (Valenciennes 1840)
Tympanopleura atronasus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)
Tympanopleura brevis (Steindachner 1881)
Tympanopleura cryptica Walsh, Ribeiro & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015
Tympanopleura piperata Eigenmann 1912
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma capapretum Lundberg & Akama 2005 *
Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein 1819) *
Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger 1898) *
Brachyplatystoma platynemum Boulenger 1898 *
Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau 1855) * LC
Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes 1840) *
Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein 1819) *
Cheirocerus eques Eigenmann 1917
Cheirocerus goeldii (Steindachner 1908)
Duopalatinus peruanus Eigenmann & Allen 1942
Exallodontus aguanai Lundberg, Mago-Leccia & Nass 1991
Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes 1840) *
Hypophthalmus celiae Littman, Lundberg & Rocha 2021
Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 *
Hypophthalmus donascimientoi Littman, Lundberg & Rocha 2021
Hypophthalmus fimbriatus Kner 1858
Leiarius marmoratus (Gill 1870) *
Megalonema amaxanthum Lundberg & Dahdul 2008
Megalonema platycephalum Eigenmann 1912
Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) *
Pimelodina flavipinnis Steindachner 1876 *
Pimelodus altissimus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942
Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes 1840 *
Pimelodus jivaro Eigenmann & Pearson 1942
Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803
Pimelodus ornatus Kner 1858
Pimelodus pictus Steindachner 1876
Pimelodus tetramerus Ribeiro & Lucena 2006
Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841) *
Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880)
Platystomatichthys sturio (Kner 1858)
Propimelodus caesius Parisi, Lundberg & DoNascimiento 2006
Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus 1766)
Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau 1855) *
Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes 1840) *
Sorubim elongatus Littmann, Burr, Schmidt & Isern 2001
Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider 1801) *
Sorubim maniradii Littmann, Burr & Buitrago-Suarez 2001
Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz 1829) *
Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt 1821) *
Pseudopimelodidae Batrochoglanis raninus (Valenciennes 1840)
Microglanis poecilus Eigenmann 1912
Microglanis zonatus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 LC
Pseudopimelodus bufonius (Valenciennes 1840)
Rhyacoglanis pulcher (Boulenger 1887)
Heptapteridae Cetopsorhamdia hidalgoi Faustino-Fuster & Souza 2021
Chasmocranus peruanus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942 DD
Gladioglanis conquistador Lundberg, Bornbusch & Mago-Leccia 1991
Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel 1849)
Imparfinis guttatus (Pearson 1924)
Imparfinis pseudonemacheir Mees & Cala 1989
Mastiglanis yaguas Faustino-Fuster & Ortega 2020 x
Myoglanis koepckei Chang 1999
Nemuroglanis lanceolatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889
Pariolius armillatus Cope 1872
Phenacorhamdia sp.
Pimelodella buckleyi (Boulenger 1887) DD
Pimelodella cristata (Müller & Troschel 1849) LC
Pimelodella cyanostigma (Cope 1870) DD
Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes 1835)
Pimelodella hasemani Eigenmann 1917
Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein 1823)
Pimelodella serrata Eigenmann 1917
Rhamdia cf. quelen
Cetopsidae Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829
Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819)
Cetopsis montana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 LC
Cetopsis oliveirai (Lundberg & Rapp Py-Daniel 1994)
Cetopsis parma Oliveira, Vari & Ferraris 2001
Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner 1882
Denticetopsis seducta Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005
Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863
Aspredinidae Amaralia hypsiura (Kner 1855)
Bunocephalus aleuropsis Cope 1870
Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope 1874) LC
Bunocephalus knerii Steindachner 1882 LC
Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum 1792)
Pseudobunocephalus amazonicus (Mees 1989)
Pseudobunocephalus bifidus (Eigenmann 1942)
Pterobunocephalus depressus (Haseman 1911)
Pterobunocephalus dolichurus (Delsman 1941)
Xyliphius sofiae Sabaj Pérez, Carvalho & Reis 2017 x
Trichomycteridae Acanthopoma annectens Lütken 1892
Apomatoceros alleni Eigenmann 1922
Henonemus macrops (Steindachner 1882)
Henonemus punctatus (Boulenger 1887)
Ituglanis amazonicus (Steindachner 1882)
Megalocentor echthrus de Pinna & Britski 1991
Ochmacanthus reinhardtii (Steindachner 1882)
Pareiodon microps Kner 1855
Plectrochilus diabolicus (Myers 1927)
Potamoglanis hasemani (Eigenmann 1914)
Pseudostegophilus nemurus (Günther 1869)
Schultzichthys bondi (Myers 1942)
Trichomycterus cf. rivulatus
Tridensimilis brevis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)
Tridentopsis pearsoni Myers 1925
Vandellia cirrhosa Valenciennes 1846
Vandellia sanguinea Eigenmann 1917
Callichthyidae Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus 1758)
Corydoras acutus Cope 1872 LC
Corydoras aeneus (Gill 1858)
Corydoras agassizii Steindachner 1876
Corydoras ambiacus Cope 1872
Corydoras amphibelus Cope 1872 LC
Corydoras arcuatus Elwin 1938
Corydoras armatus (Günther 1868)
Corydoras atropersonatus Weitzman & Nijssen 1970 DD
Corydoras copei Nijssen & Isbrücker 1986 LC
Corydoras coriatae Burgess 1997 LC
Corydoras elegans Steindachner 1876
Corydoras eques Steindachner 1876
Corydoras fowleri Böhlke 1950 LC
Corydoras lamberti Nijssen & Isbrücker 1986 LC
Corydoras leopardus Myers 1933
Corydoras leucomelas Eigenmann & Allen 1942 LC
Corydoras loretoensis Nijssen & Isbrücker 1986 LC
Corydoras melini Lönnberg & Rendahl 1930 LC
Corydoras multiradiatus (Orcés V. 1960) LC
Corydoras napoensis Nijssen & Isbrücker 1986 LC
Corydoras ortegai Britto, Lima & Hidalgo 2007 LC
Corydoras pastazensis Weitzman 1963 LC
Corydoras pygmaeus Knaack 1966
Corydoras rabauti LaMonte 1941
Corydoras reticulatus Fraser-Brunner 1938
Corydoras semiaquilus Weitzman 1964
Corydoras sodalis Nijssen & Isbrücker 1986
Corydoras splendens (Castelnau 1855)
Corydoras stenocephalus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 LC
Corydoras sychri Weitzman 1960 x LC
Corydoras trilineatus Cope 1872
Corydoras weitzmani Nijssen 1971 LC
Corydoras zygatus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 LC
Dianema longibarbis Cope 1872 *
Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock 1828)
Lepthoplosternum altamazonicum Reis 1997 LC
Lepthoplosternum ucamara Reis & Kaefer 2005
Megalechis picta (Müller & Troschel 1849)
Megalechis thoracata (Valenciennes 1840)
Loricariidae Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988
Ancistrus alga (Cope 1872)
Ancistrus hoplogenys (Günther 1864)
Ancistrus malacops (Cope 1872) LC
Ancistrus sericeus (Cope 1872) LC
Ancistrus tamboensis Fowler 1945 LC
Ancistrus variolus (Cope 1872) DD
Aphanotorulus emarginatus (Valenciennes 1840) *
Aphanotorulus horridus (Kner 1854)
Aphanotorulus phrixosoma (Fowler 1940) x
Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908)
Chaetostoma lineopunctatum Eigenmann & Allen 1942 LC
Farlowella amazonum (Günther 1864)
Farlowella knerii (Steindachner 1882) LC
Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910
Farlowella odontotumulus Retzer & Page 1997
Farlowella oxyrryncha (Kner 1853)
Farlowella smithi Fowler 1913
Hemiodontichthys acipenserinus (Kner 1853)
Hypoptopoma brevirostratum Aquino & Schaefer 2010
Hypoptopoma gulare Cope 1878
Hypoptopoma psilogaster Fowler 1915
Hypoptopoma steindachneri Boulenger 1895
Hypoptopoma thoracatum Günther 1868
Hypostomus carinatus (Steindachner 1881)
Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854
Hypostomus ericius Armbruster 2003 LC
Hypostomus fonchii Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002 LC
Hypostomus hemicochliodon Armbruster 2003
Hypostomus levis (Pearson 1924) DD
Hypostomus niceforoi (Fowler 1943) DD
Hypostomus oculeus (Fowler 1943) DD
Hypostomus pyrineusi (Miranda Ribeiro 1920)
Lamontichthys filamentosus (LaMonte 1935)
Lasiancistrus heteracanthus (Günther 1869) LC
Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864) LC
Limatulichthys griseus (Eigenmann 1909)
Limatulichthys petleyi (Fowler 1940)
Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758
Loricaria clavipinna Fowler 1940
Loricaria similima Regan 1904
Loricariichthys acutus (Valenciennes 1840)
Loricariichthys chanjoo (Fowler 1940) DD
Loricariichthys hauxwelli Fowler 1915 LC
Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794)
Loricariichthys nudirostris (Kner 1853)
Loricariichthys stuebelii (Steindachner 1882)
Loricariichthys ucayalensis Regan 1913 LC
Nannoptopoma spectabile (Eigenmann 1914)
Nannoptopoma sternoptychum Schaefer 1996
Otocinclus batmani Lehmann A. 2006
Otocinclus cocama Reis 2004 x EN
Otocinclus huaorani Schaefer 1997 LC
Otocinclus macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 LC
Otocinclus vestitus Cope 1872
Otocinclus vittatus Regan 1904
Oxyropsis carinata (Steindachner 1879)
Oxyropsis wrightiana Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 LC
Panaqolus changae (Chockley & Armbruster 2002) x LC
Panaqolus dentex (Günther 1868) LC
Panaqolus gnomus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993) LC
Panaqolus nocturnus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993) LC
Panaque bathyphilus Lujan & Chamon 2008
Panaque schaeferi Lujan, Hidalgo & Stewart 2010
Peckoltia brevis (LaMonte 1935)
Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner 1881)
Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898)
Planiloricaria cryptodon (Isbrücker 1971)
Pseudohemiodon apithanos Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978 LC
Pseudohemiodon lamina (Günther 1868) LC
Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840) *
Pterosturisoma microps (Eigenmann & Allen 1942)
Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854)
Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau 1855) *
Pterygoplichthys punctatus (Kner 1854)
Pterygoplichthys scrophus (Cope 1874) x LC
Rhadinoloricaria bahuaja (Chang & Castro 1999)
Rhadinoloricaria macromystax (Günther 1869) DD
Rhadinoloricaria ommation (Nijssen & Isbrücker 1988)
Rhadinoloricaria rhami (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1983)
Rineloricaria konopickyi (Steindachner 1879)
Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868)
Rineloricaria morrowi Fowler 1940 LC
Rineloricaria phoxocephala (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)
Rineloricaria wolfei Fowler 1940 x LC
Spatuloricaria evansii (Boulenger 1892) LC
Sturisoma guentheri (Regan 1904) LC
Sturisoma nigrirostrum Fowler 1940 LC
Sturisoma rostratum (Spix & Agassiz 1829)
Astroblepidae Astroblepus sp.  
Batrachoididae Thalassophryne amazonica Steindachner 1876  
Rivulidae Anablepsoides atratus (Garman 1895)
Anablepsoides intermittens (Fels & de Rham 1981) x NT
Anablepsoides ophiomimus (Huber 1992) LC
Anablepsoides ornatus (Garman 1895)
Anablepsoides rubrolineatus (Fels & de Rham 1981) LC
Anablepsoides speciosus (Fels & de Rham 1981) x CR
Anablepsoides urophthalmus (Günther 1866)
Laimosemion rectocaudatum (Fels & de Rham 1981) x DD
Moema hellneri Costa 2003 x
Moema peruensis (Myers 1954) x DD
Moema schleseri Costa 2003 x  
Belonidae Belonion dibranchodon Collette 1966
Potamorrhaphis eigenmanni Miranda Ribeiro 1915
Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Jardine 1843)
Potamorrhaphis labiata Sant'Anna, Delapieve & Reis 2012
Pseudotylosurus angusticeps (Günther 1866)
Pseudotylosurus microps (Günther 1866)  
Synbranchidae Synbranchus lampreia Favorito, Zanata & Assumpção 2005
Synbranchus madeirae Rosen & Rumney 1972
Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 LC
Sciaenidae Pachypops fourcroi (Lacepède 1802) LC
Pachypops trifilis (Müller & Troschel 1849) LC
Pachyurus gabrielensis Casatti 2001 LC
Pachyurus schomburgkii Günther 1860 LC
Pachyurus stewarti Casatti & Chao 2002 DD
Plagioscion auratus (Castelnau 1855) LC
Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) * LC
Polycentridae Monocirrhus polyacanthus Heckel 1840  
Cichlidae Acarichthys heckelii (Müller & Troschel 1849)
Acaronia nassa (Heckel 1840)
Aequidens diadema (Heckel 1840)
Aequidens tetramerus (Heckel 1840)
Apistogramma agassizii (Steindachner 1875)
Apistogramma allpahuayo Römer, Beninde, Duponchelle, Díaz, Ortega, Hahn et al. 2012 x LC
Apistogramma amoena (Cope 1872)
Apistogramma barlowi Römer & Hahn 2008 x LC
Apistogramma bitaeniata Pellegrin 1936
Apistogramma cacatuoides Hoedeman 1951
Apistogramma cinilabra Römer, Duponchelle, Diaz, Dávila, Sirvas, Catchay & Renno 2011 x VU
Apistogramma cruzi Kullander 1986 LC
Apistogramma eremnopyge Ready & Kullander 2004 x LC
Apistogramma eunotus Kullander 1981
Apistogramma feconat Römer, Soares, Dávila, Duponchelle, Renno & Hahn 2015 x
Apistogramma huascar Römer, Pretor & Hahn 2006 x DD
Apistogramma martini Römer, Hahn, Römer, Soares & Wöhler 2003 x LC
Apistogramma megastoma Römer, Römer, Estivals, Díaz, Duponchelle, Dávila, Hahn & Renno 2017
Apistogramma nijsseni Kullander 1979 x DD
Apistogramma norberti Staeck 1991 x DD
Apistogramma ortegai Britzke, Oliveira & Kullander 2014 x
Apistogramma pantalone Römer, Römer, Soares & Hahn 2006 x DD
Apistogramma paulmuelleri Römer, Beninde, Duponchelle, Dávila, Vela Díaz, & Renno 2013 x DD
Apistogramma payaminonis Kullander 1986 DD
Apistogramma rositae Römer, Römer & Hahn 2006 x DD
Apistogramma wolli Römer, Soares, Dávila, Duponchelle, Renno & Hahn 2015
Apistogrammoides pucallpaensis Meinken 1965
Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz 1831) *
Biotodoma cupido (Heckel 1840)
Bujurquina apoparuana Kullander 1986 LC
Bujurquina hophrys Kullander 1986 LC
Bujurquina huallagae Kullander 1986 LC
Bujurquina labiosa Kullander 1986 LC
Bujurquina moriorum Kullander 1986 LC
Bujurquina ortegai Kullander 1986 DD
Bujurquina pardus Arbour, Barriga Salazar & López-Fernández 2014 DD
Bujurquina peregrinabunda Kullander 1986
Bujurquina robusta Kullander 1986 DD
Bujurquina syspilus (Cope 1872) LC
Chaetobranchus flavescens Heckel 1840 *
Cichla monoculus Spix & Agassiz 1831 *
Cichlasoma amazonarum Kullander 1983
Crenicara punctulata (Günther 1863)
Crenicichla anthurus Cope 1872 LC
Crenicichla cincta Regan 1905 * LC
Crenicichla cyanonotus Cope 1870
Crenicichla johanna Heckel 1840 *
Crenicichla lucius Cope 1870
Crenicichla proteus Cope 1872
Crenicichla reticulatus (Heckel 1840)
Crenicichla sedentaria Kullander 1986 LC
Crenicichla semicincta Steindachner 1892
Heroina isonycterina Kullander 1996 LC
Heros efasciatus Heckel 1840 *
Hypselecara temporalis (Günther 1862) *
Laetacara flavilabris (Cope 1870)
Laetacara thayeri (Steindachner 1875)
Mesonauta festivus (Heckel 1840)
Mesonauta insignis (Heckel 1840)
Mesonauta mirificus Kullander & Silfvergrip 1991 LC
Pterophyllum scalare (Schultze 1823)
Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel 1840) *
Symphysodon tarzoo Lyons 1959
Tahuantinsuyoa macantzatza Kullander 1986 DD
Achiridae Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758) LC
Apionichthys finis (Eigenmann 1912)
Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner 1876) LC
Apionichthys seripierriae Ramos 2003
Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther 1862)  
  Tetraodontidae Colomesus asellus (Müller & Troschel 1849)      

Received: February 09, 2021; Accepted: August 10, 2021

*Corresponding autor

Conflicto de intereses / Competing interests:

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Rol de los autores / Authors Roles:

VMV, DRFF, JC, MH: conceptualization, investigation, methodology, data curation. VMV, DRFF, JC: formal analysis. VMV: writing original draft. VMV, DFF, JC, MH, HO: writing, review and editing.

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