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Scientia Agropecuaria

versión impresa ISSN 2077-9917

Scientia Agropecuaria vol.14 no.3 Trujillo jul./set. 2023  Epub 11-Ago-2023 

Artículos de Revisión

Recent highlights on passion fruit waste valorization: A review

1 University of Economics - Varna, blvd “Kniaz Boris I” 77, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria.


In the present review, with the help of the descriptive method, some main highlights regarding the possibilities for the valorization of passion fruit waste are systematically presented. To the best of the author’s knowledge, there is still no published review in the English-language scientific literature that examines opportunities, prospects and challenges for the valorization of passion fruit waste. For the preparation of the current review, scientific publications referenced in some of the most authoritative world-renowned scientific databases were used (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar); book chapters were not included. This review does not aim to cover, compile and describe all the scientific production available under the keywords “passion fruit waste”, but aims to highlight only some major research trends regarding the possibilities of valorization of passion fruit waste. Scientific articles that remained for technical or other reasons beyond the scope of the current review paper could be included in a subsequent updated review.

Keywords: Passion Fruit Waste; Valorization; Highlights; Descriptive Approach

1. Introduction

Passion fruit belongs to the Passifloraceae family and it is distinguished by its taste and nutritional properties (Corrêa et al., 2016; Cheok et al., 2018; He et al., 2020; Viganó & Martinez, 2015; Cesar et al., 2022). Among the substances contained in passion fruit are dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, pectin, antioxidants, flavonoids and other bioactive compounds (Corrêa et al., 2016; He et al., 2020; Biswas et al., 2021; Viganó & Martinez, 2015). Systematized information on chemical and biological activity of different parts of passion fruit could be found in the mini-review article by He et al. (2020); in the work by Viganó & Martinez (2015), the composition and extraction techniques of phytochemicals were considered. Passion fruit can be processed and consumed as juices, dehydrated products, jams, jellies, marmalades, etc. (Biswas et al., 2021); and large amounts of waste are released during processing, including peels and seeds (Corrêa et al., 2016; dos Reis et al., 2018; He et al., 2020; Viganó & Martinez, 2015). Constituent characteristics and functional properties of passion fruit seeds were summarized by Kawakami et al. (2022); possible applications of seed oil were considered by Cesar et al. (2022). According to Cheok et al. (2018), passion fruit peels and seeds account for about 45%-52% and 1%-4% of the total fruit, respectively. Due to the larger amount of peels, they are utilized to a greater extent than the seeds (Cheok et al., 2018).

To the best of the author’s knowledge, there is still no published review in the English-language scientific literature in which the opportunities for the valorization of passion fruit waste were considered in general terms. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present some recent highlights regarding the valorization possibilities of passion fruit waste.

2. Brief bibliographic overview

The current review has been prepared using only scientific publications in English indexed in the most authoritative international databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar); book chapters were not considered at all and were not included.

Table 1 Systematization of the scientific publications cited in this paper by main words contained in the title and their percentage share 

Main words in the title of the article Share, % Reference
“waste/wastes” 9.73% Campos-Flores et al., 2018; Chóez-Guaranda et al., 2017; da Silva et al., 2022; da Silva Francischini et al., 2020; de Barros Júnior et al., 2020; Krambeck et al., 2018; Pavan et al., 2008b; Pereira et al., 2020; Suárez Rivero et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2023; Zilly et al., 2012
“peel/peels” 28.32% Abboud et al., 2020; Aisyah & Ngibad, 2022; Almeida et al., 2015; Castañeda-Figueredo et al., 2022; Chutia & Mahanta, 2021; de Oliveira Brito et al., 2019; do Nascimento et al., 2016; Fang et al., 2023; Florêncio et al., 2020; Garcia et al., 2020; Herrera-Ramirez et al., 2020; Huo et al., 2023; Kliemann et al., 2009; Kulkarni & Vijayanand, 2010; Liew et al., 2016; Lin et al., 2022; Liu et al., 2018; Macedo et al., 2023; Moro et al., 2017; Nugraha et al., 2018; Pavan et al., 2007; Pavan et al., 2008a; Ramli et al., 2020; Sampaio et al., 2022; Seixas et al., 2014; Silva et al., 2021; Sun et al., 2021; Teng et al., 2022; Vasco-Correa & Zapata Zapata, 2017; Weng et al., 2021; Wong et al., 2014; Yeo & Thed, 2022
“rind/rinds” 6.19% Canteri et al., 2012; de Souza et al., 2018; Inayati et al., 2018; Liu et al., 2021; Pereira et al., 2021; Viganó et al., 2016; Zeraik et al., 2012
“shell” 3.54% Campos-Flores et al., 2019; Chao et al., 2014; Fan et al., 2022; Hu et al., 2021
“bark/barks” 0.88% Machado et al., 2008
“epicarp” 0.88% Ghada et al., 2020
“pericarp” 1.77% Canteri et al., 2010; Talma et al., 2019
“mesocarp” 0.88% Nascimento et al., 2012
“flavedo” 0.88% da Silva et al., 2019a
“albedo” 0.88% de Aguiar et al., 2019
“seed/seeds” 14.16% Ahmad & Malik, 2023; Antoniassi et al., 2022; Arturo-Perdomo et al., 2021; Barrales et al., 2015; de Santana et al., 2017; Kariuki et al., 2012; Kawakami et al., 2022; Lourith et al., 2017; Muslim et al., 2023; Malacrida & Jorge, 2012; Oliveira et al., 2017; Pereira et al., 2017; Reis et al., 2020; Silva et al., 2015; Surlehan et al, 2019; Vieira et al., 2022
“by-product/by-products” 3.54% de Toledo et al., 2018; Duarte et al., 2017; Krambeck et al., 2020; Viganó & Martinez, 2015
“residue/residues” 1.77% Leão et al., 2014;Lima et al., 2018
“valorization” 0.88% Rodríguez-Restrepo et al., 2020
“waste/wastes” and “peel/peels” 5.31% Kobo et al., 2022; My-Thao Nguyen et al., 2021; Phan & Ngo, 2020; Silva et al., 2019; Tarigan et al., 2022; Wijaya et al., 2017
“waste/wastes” and “rind/rinds” 0.88% Barbalho et al., 2012
“waste/wastes” and “shell” 0.88% Lin & Zheng, 2021
“waste/wastes” and “seed/seeds” 0.88% Regis et al., 2015
“waste/wastes” and “residue/residues” 0.88% Locatelli et al., 2019
“waste/wastes” and “utilization” 0.88% Cheok et al., 2018
“peel/peels” and “by-product/by-products” 0.88% Bussolo de Souza et al., 2018
“peel/peels” and “albedo” 0.88% da Silva et al., 2019b
“peel/peels” and “seed/seeds” 1.77% da Costa et al., 2023; González et al., 2019
“peel/peels”, “by-product/by-products” and “valorization” 0.88% Martins et al., 2018
“rind/rinds” and “albedo” 0.88% de Oliveira & de Resende, 2012
“skin”, “by-product/by-products” and “utilization” 0.88% Gerola et al., 2013
“seed/seeds”and “residue/residues” 0.88% de Almeida et al., 2021
“seed/seeds”, “residue/residues”And “utilization” 0.88% dos Santos et al., 2021
“seed/seeds” and “utilization” 0.88% Viyona et al., 2019
“by-product/by-products” and valorization” 0.88% Oliveira et al., 2016

This review does not aim to cover, compile and describe all available scientific production in the above databases under the keywords “passion fruit waste”, but aims to systematically summarize and highlight, with the help of the descriptive approach, only some major research tendencies regarding valorization aspects about possibilities of passion fruit waste. Scientific articles that remained for technical or other reasons beyond the scope of the current review paper could be included in a subsequent updated review.

Among the selected publications after the literature survey was done, it is noticeable that the author teams in just over half of them are entirely Brazilian or individual members of international author teams are Brazilian. This confirms what has been stated in almost all the articles about who are the leading passion fruit growers worldwide and about the importance of passion fruit as an agricultural crop. In one-third of the publications used here, the number of authors is five or more.

The intention of this paper was to give an overview and to provide a general framework on the stated subject, not to retell statements, conclusions, generalizations done by other authors that can be found in their respective works.

In Table 1 the scientific publications cited in the present review paper were systematized by some main words contained in the title and their percentage share.

The most common words were “peel/peels”, pre sented in just over a quarter of the titles used here; in second and third place were the words “seed/seeds” and “waste/wastes”, respectively, which confirms what was stated in the article by Cheok et al. (2018) that the peels were utilized to a greater extent than the seeds. This was also shown by the present descriptive study: in most of the research studies, the object of investigation was the peels.

Figure 1 Main areas of passion fruit waste valorization 

Next were the terms “rind/rinds”, the simultaneous presence in the title of the words “waste/wastes” and “peel/peels”, followed by “by-product/by-products”, “shell”, “residue/residues”, “pericarp”. The words “bark/barks”; “epicarp”; “mesocarp”; “flavedo”; “albedo”; “valorization”; “waste/wastes” and “rind/rinds”; “waste/wastes” and “shell”; “waste/wastes” and “seed/seeds”; “waste/wastes” and “residue/residues”; “waste/wastes” and “utilization”; “peel/peels” and “by-product/by-products”; “peel/peels” and “albedo”; “peel/peels” and “seed/seeds”; “peel/peels”, “by-product/by-products” and “valorization”; “rind/rinds” and “albedo”; “skin”, “by-product/by-products” and “utilization”; “seed/seeds” and “residue/residues”; “seed/seeds”, “residue/residues” and “utilization”; “seed/seeds” and “utilization”; “by-product/by-products” and “valorization” were included in almost one percent of the titles, respectively.

3. Passion fruit waste valorization highlights

The performed descriptive literature review gave reason to conclude that the main areas of valorization of passion fruit waste can be grouped into several main directions, which the author of this review considered appropriate to be systematized and presented in Figure 1.

It is clear from the Fig. 1 that the main directions for valorization of passion fruit waste, which are being worked on in modern conditions, are: determination of composition, isolation of chemical compounds and characterization of biological activity; development of adsorbents for the removal of various pollutants; attempts at embedding and application in food systems; use in animal nutrition; as well as some other areas of valorization.

The articles used in this review paper were systematized by valorization aspects and some main highlights were presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Systematic overview of used in this paper scientific publications on passion fruit waste valorization 

Valorization highlights Waste used Reference
Chemical compounds and bioactivity characterization Soluble dietary fibres; high methoxyl pectin Peel Abboud et al., 2020
Enzymes production Rinds Zilly et al., 2012
β-glucosidases production Peel Almeida et al., 2015
Xylanase production Peel Martins et al., 2018
Seed oil: physical and chemical characterization Seeds Malacrida & Jorge, 2012
Supercritical CO2 extraction of seed oil assisted by ultrasound Seeds Barrales et al., 2015
Polar lipids of seeds oil extracted by supercritical CO2 Seeds Arturo-Perdomo et al., 2021
Oil extraction Seeds Pereira et al., 2017
Oil extraction Seeds Surlehan et al, 2019
Oil quality Seeds Regis et al., 2015
Oil quality Seeds Antoniassi et al., 2022
Dietary fibres: pectin and (hemi)cellulose Peels Bussolo de Souza et al., 2018
Physicochemical composition Pericarp Canteri et al., 2010
Essential oils Shells and seeds Chóez-Guaranda et al., 2017
Carotenoids extraction Peel Chutia & Mahanta, 2021
Fiber pectin Waste Contreras-Esquivel et al., 2010
Flour: physico-chemical characterization Peel and albedo da Silva et al., 2019a
Production of flour by drying Peel and albedo da Silva et al., 2019b
Production of functional flour Residues Lima et al., 2018
Flour: development and characterization Peels Macedo et al., 2023
Flavonoids and pectin extraction Rind de Souza et al., 2018
Flavonoid extraction Peel da Silva Francischini et al., 2020
Flavonoid content of ethanol and ethyl acetate extract Peel Aisyah & Ngibad, 2022
Pectin Albedo de Aguiar et al., 2019
Pectin and phenolics - simultaneous extraction, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant activity Peel Huo et al., 2023
Albedo flour; pectin content Rind de Oliveira & de Resende, 2012
Antioxidant polyphenolic compounds extraction Seeds de Santana et al., 2017
Phenolic compounds extraction Rinds Pereira et al., 2021
Pericarp fractions characterization Rind Talma et al., 2019
Antioxidant properties Peel Wong et al., 2014
Antioxidant activity Peel do Nascimento et al., 2016
Extraction methods - antioxidant activity Seed Ahmad & Malik, 2023
Phenolic compounds - antioxidant activity Peel and seed da Costa et al., 2023
Lipids and antioxidants Seeds Reis et al., 2020
Seeds oil as a source of fatty acids and bioactive substances Seeds dos Santos et al., 2021
Physicochemical and technological properties Peel Duarte et al., 2017
Physicochemical and antioxidant evaluation Peel and seed dos Reis et al., 2018
Anthocyanins Epicarp Ghada et al., 2020
Anthocyanins extraction Peels Liu et al., 2018
Anthocyanins extraction Peel Herrera-Ramirez et al., 2020
Anthocyanins extraction Rind Liu et al., 2021
Mesocarp flour in flexible films Mesocarp Nascimento et al., 2012
Cellulose nanocrystals as drug carrier Peels Wijaya et al., 2017
Ag- and Au-nanoparticles: antibacterial and catalytic activities Peels My-Thao Nguyen et al., 2021
Cellulose nanofibers; immobilization of trypsin Stalks Rodríguez-Restrepo et al., 2020
Extraction and biological activity Seeds and seed cake Oliveira et al., 2016
Antibacterial activity Pericarp Nugraha et al., 2018
Some chemical and bioactive investigations Peel and seed González et al., 2019
Pectin for edible coating Rind Inayati et al., 2018
Pectin extraction Peel Kliemann et al., 2009
Pectin extraction Peel Kulkarni & Vijayanand, 2010
Pectin extraction Rind Canteri et al., 2012
Pectin extraction Peel Seixas et al., 2014
Pectin extraction Peels Liew et al., 2016
Pectin extraction Peel Vasco-Correa & Zapata Zapata, 2017
Pectin and cellulose extraction Peel Phan & Ngo, 2020
Novel pectin polysaccharides Peel Teng et al., 2022
Antioxidant activity of seeds oil Seeds Krambeck et al., 2018
Stilbenes (piceatannol and resveratrol) in seeds oil Seeds Krambeck et al., 2020
Aromatic oil Seeds Leão et al., 2014
Seeds and oil: chemical characteristics Seeds Silva et al., 2015
Isoorientin Rinds Zeraik et al., 2012
Bioactive compounds extraction Rinds Viganó et al., 2016
Bioreduction of carbonyl compounds Barks Machado et al., 2008
Adsorbents Adsorption of Pb, Cr, Cu Shell Campos-Flores et al., 2018
Adsorption of Cr (III) Shell Campos-Flores et al., 2019
Removal of Pb and Cr Peels Castañeda-Figueredo et al., 2022
Removal of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) Shell Chao et al., 2014
Adsorption of Pb(II) Skin Gerola et al., 2013
Eriochrome black adsorption Peel de Oliveira Brito et al., 2019
Methylene blue removal Peel Pavan et al., 2007
Adsorption of methylene blue Peel Pavan et al., 2008a
Methylene blue adsorption Peel Pavan et al., 2008b
Removal of methylene blue and methyl violet Peel Lin et al., 2022
Food systems Flour in drinkable yogurt Peels and seeds de Toledo et al., 2018
Peel flour in dietary cookies Peel Garcia et al., 2020
Peel flour in biscuits Peels Weng et al., 2021
Peel flour in cookies Peel Sampaio et al., 2022
Dark chocolate Seeds Yeo & Thed, 2022
Meat products preservation Peels Ramli et al., 2020
Animal feeding Meat quail Pulp waste de Barros Júnior et al., 2020
Quail in the laying phase Waste from pulp extraction Pereira et al., 2020
Some other valorization aspects Peel flour: bibliometric analysis Peel Florêncio et al., 2020
Activated carbon Seed de Almeida et al., 2021
Activated carbon for methylene blue removal Seeds Vieira et al., 2022
Fe and N dual doped catalyst Peels Zhang et al., 2023
Production of solid biofuels by torrefaction Peel da Silva et al., 2022
Sunscreen products Seed Lourith et al., 2017
UVB-protection Peels Fang et al., 2023
Effect of 3% purple passion fruit seed extract cream on facial skin aging Seed Muslim et al., 2023
Peel flour in starch bioplastics Peel Moro et al., 2017
Biochar Shell Hu et al., 2021
Biochar production by microwave-assisted wet co-torrefaction Shell Lin & Zheng, 2021
Ratiometric fluorescent molecularly imprinted sensor for tetracycline detection Peels Sun et al., 2021
Fat content prediction Seed Viyona et al., 2019
Dehydration of thin-layer foods: semiempirical models Peels Vega-Castro et al., 2023
Potential use as biomass Exocarp Suárez Rivero et al., 2018
Biodiesel from seed oil Seed Kariuki et al., 2012
Waste peel as a catalyst for biodiesel production Peel Tarigan et al., 2022
Cellulase production to obtain biogas Peel Silva et al., 2019
Biochemical evalution Rinds Barbalho et al., 2012
Corrosion inhibition Shell Fan et al., 2022
Seed oil encapsulation Seed Oliveira et al., 2017
Micro-encapsulation of peel powders rich in polyphenols Peel Kobo et al., 2022
Pectin as a substrate for the cell growth Peels and bagasse Locatelli et al., 2019
Substrate for pigment production Peel Silva et al., 2021

The largest was the valorization direction (more than two-thirds of the articles cited here), dedicated to the study of the chemical composition of passion fruit waste, the extraction of various compounds from them and the evaluation of their biological activity with the aim of their potential further application as functional components for various industrial purposes. The author is of the opinion that it is completely explainable and understandable that this valorization direction was the most extensive and that the largest number of studies have been devoted to it, because before outlining specific guidelines for practical application and utilization of waste resources, it must first to be determined and known their chemical composition. The presence of various valuable components in passion fruit waste necessitates the development and application of various techniques for their extraction, isolation, as well as determination of their content.

Almost one-tenth of the research focused on the possibilities of using passion fruit waste as adsorbents for the removal of various inorganic and organic pollutants from water. In the works used here, the adsorption mechanisms and the efficiency of the adsorption process with respect to both metal ions and organic dyes presented in various aqueous media were studied and discussed.

The opportunities and challenges of incorporating passion fruit waste components into food systems after appropriate processing was the next area of research. The author of the present review believes that this is a very interesting and promising direction of valorization in which investigations could be intensified.

The number of studies using passion fruit waste in animal feed was surprisingly small. One possible reason for this may lie in the fact that such researches (including non-English-language ones) were indexed in other scientific databases not used in this review.

The areas united here under the term “other valorization aspects” were quite diverse and include the development of activated carbon, biochar, biofuels, etc. In this way, the scope of research on the potential application of passion fruit waste is greatly expanded, and the advantages, effectiveness and challenges of each of the developed and proposed methods are indicated.

As this paper presented only the general framework for the directions regarding the valorization aspects of passion fruit waste, and did not consider in detail one specific area of potential application itself, quantitative data from the individual articles cited here were not compared and commented on.

4. Current and future challenges

The possibilities and prospects for possible valori zation of passion fruit waste for non-food purposes can be seen as a perspective and promising direction. Of particular importance is the creation, development and implementation of easily biodegradable materials from environmentally friendly waste resources, which will significantly reduce the accumulation of fruit waste and limit its harmful environmental impact if it is not managed properly.

The challenges could be deepening the research regarding the possibilities and prospects for the possible use of passion fruit waste in animal nutrition, as well as the inclusion of individual valuable components of these waste resources in food systems. In order to be developed first on a laboratory scale, and at a later stage implemented on a larger scale, such products must be categori cally proven and established to be safe for the health of consumers. This necessitates conducting in-depth intensive interdisciplinary research in the long term. It would be interesting and useful to periodically conduct surveys on consumer awareness of the possible marketing of products containing passion fruit waste components, to study and track consumer attitudes, their propensity and willingness to consume such products, as well as researching user satisfaction and establishing the opinion of consumers about these products after their use.

5. Conclusions

It can be concluded that the numerous intensive studies that were being carried out worldwide, regarding the possibilities of valorization of passion fruit waste, prove in an indisputable way the importance and relevance of the subject considered in the present review. Among the promising areas of potential application could be the creation and development of readily available, affordable, environmentally friendly materials and products for non-food purposes. From the point of view of the development of products with potential application for food purposes, the first priority should be given to the safety of consumers, which should be demonstrated in a clear, definite, indisputable and unequivocal way. Last but not least, after establishing and proving the safety of the products, is to investigate and analyze consumer attitudes regarding their receptivity and propensity to use such products.


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Received: December 31, 2022; Accepted: July 23, 2023; pub: August 11, 2023

* Corresponding author: (V. Zhivkova).

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