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Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana

Print version ISSN 1814-5469On-line version ISSN 2308-0531

Rev. Fac. Med. Hum. vol.21 no.4 Lima Oct./Dec. 2021 


Pediatric diseases more frequently: a peruvian perspective

Javier Alexander Sevillano-Jimenez1  , Human Medicine student

Hans Lenin Lenin Contreras-Pulache1  , Surgeon. Educational Neurologist. Master in Epidemiology, Public Health, Social Management and Public Management

1 Research group GRINA. Universidad Privada Norbert Wiener. Lima, Peru.

Dear Editor

We have read with great interest the article "Pediatric diseases with greater frequency in an international airport in Mexico" by Figueroa-Uribe A, et. al. where they show us the most registered diseases in medical attention in the emergency medical service of an international airport in Mexico.1When analyzing the data shown, we realize that it is possible to compare the results shown in their study in the Peruvian territory, since there is evidence from the Dirección de Epidemiología of the Dirección Regional de Salud (DIRESA) - Amazonas2which mentions a high prevalence of respiratory and digestive diseases, which are considered, as in the study conducted at the Mexican airport, to be more frequent.

However, it should be noted that the Peruvian report mentions that the most frequent pediatric diseases are those of respiratory origin, such as acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, bronchial obstructive syndrome and asthma, with acute diarrheal disease in second place. This is a worrying fact, since both conditions are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries.2-6With regard to acute respiratory diseases, as shown in a study conducted at the Centro Materno Infantil of Lima, the most prevalent are the common cold, heading the list, followed by acute pharyngitis and rhinopharyngitis; the study showed that these three respiratory pathologies had a prevalence of over 20% each, of the 4050 histories taken in the investigation. On the other hand, with regard to diseases of the digestive system, it is predominant to evaluate acute diarrheal disease, of which it is common to see at least 3 episodes in children per year. However, its importance is due to the fluid and electrolyte disorders and nutrient deprivation that this disease generates; in the Peruvian territory, a study carried out in the Hospital Regional de Lambayeque shows the etiology of this infection, finding that more than half of the acute diarrheas present an unknown etiology, followed in order of frequency are, those of parasitic, bacterial and viral origin, in that order; within these etiologies, the most important ones should be emphasized such as: Giardia lamblia (parasitic), Salmonella enteritidis (bacterial), Rotavirus and Adenovirus (viral).3It is important to know about acute diarrheal disease in Peru, since as a country, we are among the first places of incidence and mortality of this disease, especially due to our child population is subjected to the predisposing factors in rural areas, such as exposure to contaminated food and water sources, so it is still important to maintain surveillance and to know the frequency and etiology with which this condition occurs. As evidenced in the Figueroa-Uribe A, et. al.1study, Peru also shows a high prevalence of these respiratory and digestive disorders, and as suggested by national scientific evidence, most of them are associated with the levels of poverty and neglect in our country, especially in rural areas, where despite the prevalence of the aforementioned diseases, exist cases such as Malaria, Dengue, Rubella, Pertussis, Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and Bartonelosis.2


1. Augusto Flavio Figueroa-Uribe, Inti Ernesto Bocanegra-Cedillo, Julia Hernández-Ramírez, Maribel Mújica-Hernández, Viridiana Cruz-Laureano. Enfermedades pediátricas con mayor frecuencia en un aeropuerto Internacional de México. Rev. Fac. Med. Hum. Abril 2021; 21(2):301-308. DOI 10.25176/RFMH.v21i2.3709 [ Links ]

2. Calvo M, De La Cruz T. Tendencia de las enfermedades prevalentes de la infancia en la región Amazonas - Perú, 2005 - 2016. Revista de Investigacion Cientifica UNTRM: Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. 2018; 1(2): 27-34. DOI: 10.25127/rcsh.20181.328 [ Links ]

3. Sotomayor D, Bacilio C, Vargas E, et. al. Prevalencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas en niños menores de 5 años en un centro materno-infantil de Lima. Horiz Med (Lima). 2020; 20(1): 54-60. DOI: 10.24265/horizmed.2020.v20n1.08 [ Links ]

4. Silva-Díaz H, Bustamante-Canelo O, Aguilar-Gamboa F, et. al. Enteropatogenos prodominantes en diarreas agudas y variables asocidas en niños atendidos en el Hospital Regional Lambayeque, Perú. Horiz Med (Lima). 2017; 17(1): 28-44. Disponible en: ]

5. Reyes-Gómez U, Reyes-Hernández K, Santos-Calderón L, et. al. Enfermedad diarreica aguda en niños. Revista Salud Quintana Roo. 2018; 11(40): 34-41. Disponible en: ]

6. Vazquez-Rojas A. Milliar-De Jesús R. Factores de riesgo de las enfermedades diarreicas agudas en menores de cinco años. Revista de Enfermedades Infecciosas en Pediatría. 2020; 33(133): 1713-1717. Disponible en: ]

Financing: Self-funded.

Received: July 15, 2021; Accepted: September 04, 2021

Correspondence: Javier Alexander Sevillano Jimenez Address: Av. Del Pacifico, San Miguel, Lima. Peru Telephone: +51 983404109

Authorship contributions: JASJ and HLCP have participated in the conception of the article, data collection, writing and approval of the final version.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons